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3 1833 00874 6387 

ffl^jnSHM if wi^Mf m 

A narration of the principal i rrnts in th? 


YEAR A.D., 1870, TO THE YEAR A.D . 1879, INCLUSIVE. 


alexandei; kegg, 



Printed at the " Timks Printing iiiul Publishing lluu>e," Winnipeg, Man. 


F iegg, Alexander, 1840-1897. 
82559 ' "^ 
.1 'Ten years in Winnipeg. A narration of the 
principal events in the history of the city of 
Winnipeg from the year A.D.,1070 to the year A.D. 
1879, inclusii-e, "by Alexander Eegg, end Salter E. 
Narcey. Winnipeg, Man. ,1879. 

Ccttxr Cako 




f 1 

Entered according to Act of Parliament of Canada, in the year One Thousand Eight 
Hundred and Seventy-nine, by Begg & Nursey, in the office of the Minister of 




Without committing ourselves to anything so very unnecessary 
as a preface — the title of the book being largely explanatory in 
itself — we feel irresistibly impelled to explain that " Ten Years in 
Winnipeg" is submitted, not as literary effort, but as a rough 
unvarnished statement of historical events, relative to a certain city 
in the plains, which city, by her marvellous spirit of progressiveness, 
in one short decade, has manifestly established the fact, that her 
present prosperity is abundant, and that her future greatness is 

The scant time at our disposal in the eollation of the items that 
form this book, must stand the excuse — if excuse were needed — 
for the crude style of its composition. We rest its claim to recog- 
nition, solely upon the harmless ground, of its simple and complete 


Winnipeg, September 1st, 1879. 

Explanation of Foregoing Map, 

1. Fort Garry. 

2. H. B. Co. store in Winnipeg. 
o. Wm. Drever's. 

4. Red Saloon. 

5. Holy Trinity. 

6. Brian Devlin's. 

7. Red River Hall and Block. 

8. 0. Monchamp's. 

9. Garrett House. 

10. MeDermott's house, occupied by Dawson Road overseers. 

11. MeDermott's huiise, afterwards used as a Custom House. 

12. Win. Drever's house, now used as a convent. 
VS. MeDermott's Mill. 

14-. A. Mel >ermott's, sour., residence. 

15. Engine House. 

10. Post Office Block. 

17. A. G. B. Baunatyne's residence, afterwards used as Parliament 

> Bannatyue & Begg's store. 

20. Henry McKenny & Larsen's. r 

21. Henry McKenny & Larsen's storehouse, afterwards used as a 

saloon by Mclvor & Mclntyre. 

22. Emmerling Hotel, afterwards Davis House. 

23. John Higgins'. 

24. W. H. Lyon's. 

25. Henry Coture, the butcher. 
2 1). W. G. Fonseca's store. 

27. E. L. Barber's store. 




Advent ok Col. Wolseley and exit ok Riel — Flush Times — The 60th Rifles 
— The Ontario Rifles — New Arrivals — Pressmen — Retrospective — 
Primitive Winnipeg — Pioneers — Commerce — Canadian Trade Estab- 
lished — Early Drawbacks — Fur Trade — Hi:u Majesty's Mail — News- 
paper Progress — Utopia — Chapels ok Ea-^e — Red River Hall — A aery 
Normal School — The Merchant World — Business Scetches — The 
Founder.sok Winnipeg — Development of Trade. 

On the morning of Tuesday, the 23rd of August, 1S70, Col. Wolse- 
ley, at the head of the 60th Rifles., entered Fort Harry; Kiel and 
O'Donoghue had only left a few minutes previous to the entrance 
of the troops, and thus barely escaped capture. This was the 
closing scene of the Red River Rebellion and the march of progress 
was from that time commenced, by the then small village of Win- 
nipeg. The arrival of the troops infused confidence amongst the 
people ; trade which was almost dead suddenly revived, and money 
became very plentiful. Bannatyne & Begg, John Higgrns, and 
W. H. Lyon found their stores crowded with customers, and 
money flowed in. Geo. Emerling's Hotel (afterwards the Davis 
House,) was crammed from morning to evening. The saloons of O. 
Monchamp and John Lennon were full of thirsty souls at almost every 
honr of the day and night, and in fact Winnipeg, from being almost 
a deserted spot, suddenly found itself full of excitement, business 
and general activity. 

The GOth Rifles, numbering 350 men, or seven companies, were 
commanded by the following officers: — Col. Fielding; Captains 
Dundas, Northey, Young, Ward, Wallace, Calderon and Butler ; 
Lieutenant* Robinson, (Joulson, Frazer, Bingham, Mitchell, Innes, 
Davies, Wood, St. Maur, the Hon. K. Tumour and Burstall; 


EnsignsRiddeU, Archer and Holbech; Adjutant Marshaffi ; Assist- 
ant Surgeon Dr. Oliver ; Quarter Master Toole. 

Accompanying the expedition were the following officers also ; 
Lieut. Alleyne, It. A., Lieut. Heneage, R. E., Capt. McCalmont, 
9th Lancers, Lieut. Butler, G9th Reg't. 

On the 31st of August a portion of the Ontario Rifles arrived, and 
in a short time the v.ii >le battalion made its appearance, and as 
soon as the 60th KiHes had left on their return East, the volunteers 
took up their quarters in Fort Garry. The Ontario Rifles were 
officered by the following gentlemen : — Colonel Jarvis : Major 
Griffith Wainwright; ('obtains Thomas Scott, Thomas Maclem, 
Win. McAuley Herchimer, Win. Smith, Dr. Alex. P. McDonald, 
Henry Cook, Daniel Hunter McMillan; Lieutenants Donald A. 
McDonald, David M. Walker, Andrew McBride, W. N. Kennedy, 
Wm. J. McMurthy, Samuel B. Hannan, -lames Benson; Ensigns 
Arthur Nesbitt, James M. Walsh, Stewart Mulvey, Samuel Ham- 
ilton, John Biggar, W. H. Nash, Hugh J. McDonald; Adjutant 
Wm. Jas. Baker Parsons ; Quarter Master Edward Armstrong ; 
Paymaster Capt. J. F. B. Morice ; and Surgeon Dr. Codd. 

It may be said here in this connection that too much praise can- 
not be given to the Ontario Rifles as a body for their conciliatory 
conduct while stationed at Fort Garry. Although at first there 
were fears expressed that the volunteers, in a spirit of excitement, 
might indulge in excesses, we must say that the officers and men, 
generally, endeavored to infuse a good feeling amongst the people, 
by a courteous behaviour towards all classes of the community. 
This conduct on their part did much toward healing the In-each 
between both parties and individuals, caused by the Red River 

On the same day as the arrival of the 60th Rifles, His Lordship 
Bishop Tache, accompanied by M. Marc Girard, and M. Royal of 
the " Nwuvcau Monde", reached St. Boniface, direct from Canada, 
and at the same time we have to chronicle the arrival of Mr. M. St. 
John of the Toronto Globe and Mr. Cunningham of the Telegraph, 
all of whom afterwards took an active and prominent part in the 
political history of the country. 

It may be well now at this stage, before \ vocecding further 


with our narrative, to give our readers some idea of the extent and 
condition of Winnipeg previous to the arrival of the troops in '70, 
as well as a short synopsis of the causes which led tojts becoming 
a nucleus of trade. 

The name of Winnipeg was then little known outside of Mani- 
toba, while Fort Garry was a household word throughout the "Do- 
minion. Winnipeg as will be seen by the accompanying map, was 
a small and scattered place, while Fort Garry from being the head- 
quarters of the Hudson's Bay Co., and residence of the Governor, 
was a very important post. A considerable portion of the Hud- 
son's Bay Co. shipments, and all those for the fur traders, were 
addressed to Fort Garry, and thus it became the point of exchange 
between the traders and the hunters. 

Several free traders — merchants — finding that Fort Gaary had be- 
come a place of rendezvous for the plain hunters to exchange their 
furs for goods, and being aware that, unless they settled down in 
its vicinity, the Hudson's Bay Co. would have an advantage over 
them in securing the pelts, immediately determined to build stores 
as close to Fort Garry as possible. Andrew McDermott led the 
way, and was quickly followed by Messrs. A. G. B. Bannatyne, 
John Higgins, W. H. Lyon, Gingras, Henry McKenney, Wm. 
Drever, Dr. Schultz, Geo. Fmerling, H. S. Donaldson, E. Patter- 
son, Onis Monchamp, W. G. Fonseca, E. L. Barber, and Alex. 
Begg. These men therefore, and a few others not in trade, were 
the original founders of Winnipeg, and the name adopted by them 
has since been confirmed by our charter of incorporation. 

The Steamer Intcrnatioind, then owned by the Hudson's Bay 
Co., used to make two or three trips in the summer, between Fort 
Garry and Georgetown, but would never consent to carry any oth- 
er than Hudson's Bay Co. freight. The free traders were therefore 
obliged to carry their own freight over the prairie in ox-carts from 
St. Cloud, in Minnesota, to Winnipeg, a distance of several hun- 
dred miles, and as this was really a serious undertaking, it was 
customary for these trains of carts to leave twice a year only 
(spring and fall), for their journey to the States, consequently 
stocks of goods were liable to run short at times, with no means 
of replenishing them. 


In July, and late on dining the summer and autumn, the plain 
traders were in the habit of visiting Fort Garry and Winnipeg to 
exchange their furs for goods, and during these visits, times were 
very lively indeed. These wild children of the prairie Were wont 
to make their presence known in our midst, for with drinking, 
gambling, lighting, dancing, laughing, talking, swearing, horse-rac- 
ing, trading and singing, they made a perfect babel of the place, but 
strange to say, with all this wildness, we never heard of a solitary 
case of murder happening among them. As soon, however, as the 
hunters and traders had left for the plains, Winnipeg again relaps- 
ed into its normal state of order, and its inhabitants having much 
friendliness for each othei, were accustomed to enjoy themselves, 
with much more unanimity of feeling than at present prevails in 
our more polished but less honest state of society. 

In 18G9 and '70 we had a mail to and from the East, once a week 
via Pembina, and to and from the Portage and Stone Fort, every 
Tuesday. This was the extent of our postal accomodation. We 
had neither stage line, express, or steamboat running to or from 
Winnipeg for the purpose of carrying passengers, and a traveller, 
therefore, had to depend entirely on his own resources to enable 
him to come to or leave Winnipeg. We had one weekly news- 
paper, the Tf or' -Wester, which, however, from a dearth of news 
and topics of interest, busied itself in writing against the Govern- 
ment of the day — the Hudson's Bay Company — and as this finally 
grew somewhat monotonous, the people of the settlement took 
very little interest in the literary efforts of the village editor. In 
January, 1870, the Nor'- Wester, having been gobbled up by Kiel, 
for the reason that, like the Irishman, it was always agin the 
Government, the Neiv Nat'tuu appeared as the organ of the Pro- 
visional Government of Red River, alias Riel et id., and this 
paper, under the able management of Mr. Tlios. Spence, the 
present Clerk of the Legislative Assembly, continued in existence 
until the 15th" October, 1870, when Messrs. Coldwell & Cunning- 
ham purchased the plant and commenced the publication of the 

At that time the only currency in the country was Hudson's 
Bay Company notes of the following denominations : five 


pounds, one pound, five shillings, and one shilling sterling, but 
there was scarcely even such a thing heard of as " hard times." 

We had no bank, no insurance office, no lawyers, only one 
doctor, no City Council, only one policeman, no taxes — nothing 
but freedom, and, though lacking several other — so called — 
advantages of civilization, we were, to say the least of it, tolerably 
virtuous and unmistakably happy. Mr. James Mulligan, one of 
our largest property holders at the present time in the city, was 
the last policeman under the Hudson's Bay Company sway, and that. 
gentleman may remember how, on one occasion, a few fun-loving 
individuals, headed by Mr. J. H. McTavish, took him, bound to a 
cart, and deposited him in the jail, much to his astonishment. It 
was a case of turning the tables on the officer, and to Mr. Mulli- 
gan's credit be it said, he took the joke very good naturedly. The 
Jail and Court House at the time was a small log building just 
outside the wall of Fort Garry, and was far from being a very 
secure place of confinement for prisoners. 

There was one church, a very small one, " Holy Trinity," which 
then consisted, of what is now the small wing of the old 
abandoned church. The history of how " Holy Trinity" came 
to be established in Winnipeg may be interesting. A number of 
young men having formed an amateur dramatic society, Mr. Alex. 
Begg leased a room in McDermott's row (since burned down, but 
then standing immediately south of where the Merchant's Bank is 
to-day). The room thus leased was called " lied River Hall," 
and in it a series of entertainments were given to admiring crowds 
of settlers from the neighborhood. About that time citizens 
wishing to attend church had to walk as far as St. John's Cathe- 
dral, and as this was found inconvenient, Archdeacon McLean con- 
ceived the idea of holding evening services in Winnipeg. On 
being applied to, Mr. Alex. Begg at once consented to give the 
use of Red River Hall for the purpose, and also offered to become 
the first sexton of the church, to attend to the lamps, etc. Out 
of the theatre therefore grew the church, and ere long the Arch- 
deacon found the attendance on Sunday evenings increasing to 
such an extent, that the flooring of Red River Hall showed signs 
of giving way under the weight of a very fervent people. Mr. 


W. H. Lyon, who had his store immediately under the Hall, 
began to fear for the safety of his goods and chattels, and it was 
no unusual thing to see him and Mr. Begg busy of a Sunday 
evening propping up the ceiling of his store with poplar firewood 
poles, while the worshippers overhead were engaged in their 
devotional exercises. This sort of thing could not last long, how- 
ever, and as Mr. Lyon objected to remain below and the wor- 
shippers declined to go above, the church came to an end for the 
time being. Archdeacon McLean, therefore, with his usual success 
in obtaining subscriptions, managed to raise a considerable sum of 
money for the purpose of building a church in Winnipeg. Messrs. 
Andrew McDermott, Sr., Wm. Drover, Sr., and Alex. Begg, were 
then appointed a building committee, and the result of their 
labors was the little church we have already mentioned, and which 
was called Holy Trinity. 

The Rev. Mr. Young — Methodist — held services in a room in 
the house (now used as a seminary by the Sisters of Charity, on 
Notre Dame street). These were the first attempts to establish 
churches in Winnipeg. 

The only school in existence was a small class, conducted by 
Miss Bannatyne — now the wife of Rev. John Black, of Kildonan 
— and this she did more from a spirit of kindness than 
from any hope of gain. This was the commencement of 
our schools in Winnipeg. , 

There was a fire engine company at that time, composed of 
young and middle-aged men of the place, and the machine was the 
one now at Fort Garry, and which the Hudson's Bay company 
kindly lent for the protection of the town. 

Having thus taken a cursory glance at the institutions of our 
city as -they were in 1869 and 1870, we will now briefly enumerate 
the business houses at that time engaged in trade. 

The Hudson's Bay Co. prosecuted their business, as they do 
now, within the walls of Fort Garry. Next to them, in import- 
ance, was the firm of Bannatyne & Begg, who carried on a genera, 
outfitting establishment in the store at present occupied by Stobart 
Eden & Co., China Hall, and H. L. Reynold's Liquor Store. The 
firm of B. & B. was widely known in Canada and St. Paul, anil 


bought a large portion of their supplies in England. Some idea of 
the extent of their trade may he learned when we state that their 
spring brigade, in 1868, amounted to over 300 carts, each cart 
carrying from 1,000 to 1,200 lbs. weight. Mr. Bannatyne had 
been an officer in the Company's service, but afterwards undertook 
to engage in trade on his own account, in which he \vas very suc- 
cessful, notwithstanding the efforts of the H. B. C. to embarrass him. 
In 1869 he entered into partnership with Mr. Alex. Begg, and 
with him earned on a general business up to the time we com- 
mence our narrative. Mr. Begg was the first man to open up a 
regular commercial intercourse between Canada ami the North- 
West. When lie arrived here in 1807 he found the traders very 
conservative in their idea of commerce, and it was with great diffi- 
culty that he persuaded them to try the Canadian markets. They 
had been accustomed to deal entirely in England and the States. 
By perseverance and identifying himself fully with the country, he 
at last succeeded in making a break, and his first orders in 1878 
amounting to about $20,000, was the commencement of a large 
and lucrative trade between Canada and the North-West. Soon 
after establishing this Canadian connection, Mr. Begg accepted 
offers made him by Mr. Bannatyne, and entered into partnership 
with that gentleman in a general fur trading and outfitting business. 
The houses in Hamilton, which Mr. Begg then represented, have 
since had no reason to regret having extended their business to 
this country, and one of them, Messrs. dames Turner & Co., have 
since established a wholesale warehouse in Winnipeg. Next in 
importance to Bannatyne & Begg was John Higgins, who, as a 
general store-keeper, displayed his sign over the spot now occupied 
by the handsome establishment of Higgins, Young & Jackson. 
Mr. Higgins came to this country many years before the opening of 
our narrative, and for some time successfully carried on the business 
of a pedlar in which he made and saved money. He finally entered 
into partnership with W. H. Lyon, and for some years the firm 
was Higgins & Lyon. In 180!), however, there was a dissolution 
and each partner opened up a store on his own account. Mr. 
Higgins remained in the premises belonging to the firm, and Mr. 
Lvon removed to the southern corner of McDermott's row, and 


underneath Red River Hall. It is needless to say that Mr. Hig- 
gins succeeded, as his position to-day affords the proof. Mr. Lyon, 
when he came to this country, was a poor man, and in this parti- 
cular, was, perhaps, no exception to the then general rule, but 
having secured the support of a Mr. Paul, a trader in St. Boniface, 
he succeeded in scraping together a little money by trading with 
the Indians. With the means thus acquired he entered into part- 
nership with Mr. Higgins, and after dissolving with that gentleman, 
he started out afresh, once more alone. He did not remain long 
in McDermott's row, (church overhead having probably sicken- 
ed him,) but soon after erected a substantial store on the 
corner where Caldwell's drug establishment is now being 
erected, and in which he remained until 187'i. Mr. 
Lyon, by close attention to business, and cultivating a Kil- 
donan trade, made money. Henry McKenny, after doing a 
general fur and trading business, and established a saw mill on 
Lake Winnipeg, sold out his enterprise at the close of Rebellion 
and moved to Pembina. He was Sheriff under the Hudson's Bay 
Company sway. 

Dr. Schultz for many year.-, practiced his profession in the settle- 
ment, but becoming enamored of trade he gradually dropped 
medicine and devoted himself exclusively to eommerce. At that 
early period he never seemed to make much headway, however, 
but the fact of his being an out-an-out opponent of the Hudson's 
Bay Company and an agitator of the people against the Company's 
authority, through his newspaper, the Nor'- Wester, may have had 
a good deal to do with his then ill-luck. He lost heavily by the 
Rebellion, but was handsomely recouped by the Government, and 
from the time of the entrance of the troops into Winnipeg until 
now, Dr. Schultz has been a very successful man. The store then 
occupied by Dr. Schultz was the building now known as the Pomono 

H. S. Donaldson had a very nice and select stock of stationery, 
books and fancy articles, together with a variety of religious 
engravings, which to this day he blames " Begg" for cramming 
upon him. He took Lyon's place, underneath the Red River 
Hall, but made sure that no performances would be given in that 


place before moving. Mr. Donaldson is one of the real pioneers 
of the North- West. Leaving Montreal while only a lad he 
settled in Minnesota when that State was in its infancy, and after- 
wards during the Minnesota Massacre in 187U, our friend "Don" 
commanded a troop of the U. S. cavalry against the Indians. 
He afterwards came to Fort Garry in the interests of Mr. N. W. 
Kittson, of St. Paul, and, liking the country; finally concluded to 
settle. He chose the stationery and fancy goods line, and any one 
to look at his handsome store to-day, can judge whether he has 
succeeded or not. 

Robert Patterson came to this country for the purpose of trading 
in furs. He did not carry on any regular business, but made 
periodical trips to the country. He was a cute buyer and a suc- 
cessful trader — a general favorite with every one, but few cared 
to measure their wits with him in a bargain. A builder by trade, 
he has erected some of the best buildings in Winnipeg, but to this 
day he has, as everybody knows, a hankering after fur. E. L. 
Barber and W. G. Fonseca both came to Red Piver from the 
States about the same time — the former was a great man in his 
own country, having been first Governor of Dakota. Messrs. 
Barber and Fonseca respectively, carried on a small general busi- 
ness, and, like all merchants, dabbled to a certain extent in furs. 
Their stores were at Point Douglas, opposite what is now known 
as " Fonseea's pump" on Main Street. F. Gingras conducted a 
branch of his father'.-, business, the head establishment being in St. 
Joe, on the boundary. Mr. Gingras did a very large business in 
trading with the Indians, and had posts throughout the North- 
West. He was one of the most successful free traders in therdden 
time. The store of F. Gingras stood about where Dodd & Co.'s 
boot and shoe store now stands. 

One of the most original characters of the day was George Emmer- 
ling, our hotel-keeper. He came to this country on spec, and, it is 
said, landed in Winnipeg with a barrel of whiskey and two barrels 
of apples. He at once opened a hotel in one of MeDermott's 
buildings on Post Office street, and, being the only place of enter- 
tainment, he succeeded beyond his expectations. Acquiring a pro- 
perty on the Main road, he erected that portion, of what is now 


the Davis House, in which Wright's auction mart is located. Good 
fortune seemed to follow Mr. Emmerling in his new premises, and 
he rapidly acquired wealth. He kept a clean and tidy house, a 
good table, and pure liquors, and, although he was at times rather 
overbearing, he was credited with a kind heart, and his peculiari- 
ties were therefore overlooked. He soon built an addition to his 
place, and the " Davis House" of to-day, witli some alterations and 
improvements, was the " Emmerling Hotel" of '69 and '70. 

Onis Moncliamp came here a poor man, and commenced by 
keeping bar for a Mr. Holmes, who had a brewery at St. Boniface. 
Monchamp, however, soon opened in aquiet way on his own account. 
A small room on Tost Office street, witli a bench and rough deal 
counter, a barrell of beer, and one or two black bottles and a few 
glasses, constituted his first outfit. Monchamp, however, took good 
care of the dollars and cents, and ere loiig he began to improve his 
place, and when the troops arrived in Winnipeg he could boast of 
a smart hostelrie and bar on the spot where the Hotel du Canada 
stands to-day. 

Mr. Win. Drever did a small trading business in the house now 
occupied by the St. Nicholas Hotel — and we omitted to mention 
that the Hudson's Bay Company carried on a branch store under 
the charge of Mr. Moncrief in the building at present used by the 
Standard Printing Company, which building has never been 
removed from the spot on which it was built. 

Jas. H. Ashdown arrived in Winnipeg shortly before the 
rebellion, and started a small tinsmiths' shop, in' a room in the 
building now opposite the Hotel du Canada on Post Office street. 
Unfortunately for him, however, he became mixed up in the 
troubles of the country, and was held for some time in durance 
vile, a prisoner in Fort Carry, during his sojourn, in which, his 
small shop remained closed, no doubt at a great sacrifice to the 
proprietor. Mr. Ashdown having bought out one Moser — a tin- 
smith, who left for the States — by strict attention to hi? business 
and hard work, began to build up a good trade. He had no 
opposition, and as the other stores gave way to him in the hard- 
ware and tin trade, he had a tine opportunity to make money, 
which he took good care to avail himself of. 


Brien Devlin, an old pensioner, had a small eating house on the 
spot where Ossenbrugge's grocery store stands to-day. He was a 
good hearted Irishman, who never refused any man a meal whether 
he had the money to pay for it or not. He was a rough diamond, 
with as honest and true a heart as ever beat in man. 

Charles Garret, hotel-keeper, lawyer, doctor, stump orator, and 
goodness knows what else, was one of the characters in the olden 
time, and made himself notorious in many ways. He was an out 
and out opponent of the H. B. t Co. 

Mr. Arch. Wright, although not one of the first pioneers, at the 
same time commenced business here as harness-maker in com- 
pany with Mr. Stalker, before the rebellion, and, like Mr. Ashdown, 
suffered at the hands of Kiel by being placed in prison. Later on 
we refer more particularly to Wright's business. 

There were a few other small dealers and tradesmen in the 
town, but we think we have named the principal men of business 
in Winnipeg in 1869, and with this hurried glance at the old time, 
we will hasten on with the narrative of events which have occurred 
since that period. 

The map of " Winnipeg in 1869," which we publish with this 
book, will give a very good idea of the size and extent of the place 
as it existed at that early date, in which it will be seen there were 
only about a couple of dozen houses with a population not number- 
ing one hundred souls. 


Gov. Archibald Arrives— 60th Rifles Leave— Davis House— The News 
Letter — The Manitokan — Thomas Scott — Mounted Police— Thb 
First Regruits— Post Office— Donald A. Smith and Dr. Bird— Dr. 
Schultz — Knox Church — Consul Taylor— Railway Agitation — 
Theatre Royal — Census — Electoral Divisions — Mr. Mulvby on hie 
Rostrum— First Parliament— First Bank— Me. G. B. Spencer— Holy 
Trinity —First Provincial Cabinet — Parliament Buildings — 
Oysters— Tonsorial — Citizen's Ball— Bank of Manitoba — Attorney 
Gen. Clarke — Election for Commons — Legislative Council — Hon. 
J. Koyai — Customs to the Rescue— Northern Pacific R. J!.— Colon- 
ization— Steam Boating— Hill & Griggs— Beer— Good Templars- 
Fire Engine -Grace Church— Rev. g. Young— Red River Bridge— 
The Selkirk — Trial by Jury — A New Era. 

On the night of Friday the 2nd Sept., 1870, Lieut. Gov. Archi- 
bald arrived at Fort Garry accompanied by his private secretary, 
George W. Hill, and on the following Tuesday (the 6th), held a 
levee, at what was then called Hudson's Bay House, and which is 
now designated as the Governor's residence. 

The last detachment of the 60th Rifles left for home on the 3rd 
Sept., and the Ontario Volunteers immediately moved into posses- 
sion of their quarters within the Fort. 

Our friend Geo. Emmerling, who was a great supporter of the 
institutions of Uncle Sam, finding that this country from all ap- 
pearances was lost forever to the American eagle, saw tit to sell out 
his thriving business in Winnipeg and move to St. Jo, on the boun- 
dary line. II. A. Davis was the fortunate purchaser of the Emmer- 
ling Hotel property, and immediately on taking possion, changed 
its name to the " Davis House," which name it has retained 
ever since. It proved to be a Bonanza to its new proprietor, the 
house being crowed from morning to night with the many strangers 
visiting the town, as well as the volunteers stationed at Fort 

A small sheet called the Nevjs Letter was published about this 
time, which abounded in scurrility, and was not regarded with 
favour by the more respectable residents of the town. Its object, in- 


ttead of trying to heal the wounds caused by the rebellion, seemed 
to be to irritate them still more. The Manitoban, however, which 
appeared for the first time on loth Oct., 70, was looked upon as a 
respectable and worthy newspaper, and was largely subscribed for 
throughout the Province. Mr. Cunningham of the Toronto Tdc~ 
graph, having decided to remain in the country, formed a co- 
partnership with Mr. W. Cold well, and together they opened a print- 
ing office in the building lately occupied by the Nev: Nation, 
For some time after the arrival of the volunteers there appeared 
to be some feeling of excitement amongst the men, but through 
the efforts of the officers and good sense of the men in the ranks, 
matters gradually quieted down to a more even basis. 

A search was made on the loth of October, in Fort Garry for 
the remains of Thomas Scott, the victim of the rebellion, but no 
success attended the effort, although, when digging, an empty box 
in the form of a coffin was found. The remains of Thomas Scott 
have not since been discovered and in all probability never will be. 

About this time Capt. Villiers, of the Quebec volunteers, com- 
menced organizing a mounted police force, for service in the Pro- 
vince, and almost every day he could be seen drilling his recruits 
in front of the Davis House. 

The first policemen, however, regularly gazetted in the Province, 
were the following, on 10th October, 1870. Some of the names 
are familiar to our readers : — Wm. Alloway, James Cross, Win, 
Montgomery, Timothy Carroll, Edwin Doidge, Elijah Ketts, Geo. 
Kerr, John Melancon, John Stevenson, Leon Hivet, Geo. Xichol, H. 
Montgomery, Pobert Power, Maxime Villebrun, Wm, Miller, John 
Peterson, Andrew Persy, Neil McCarthy, Michael Fox. 

A petition having been signed by a number of people, addressed 
to the Lieutenant-Governor, asking for certain changes in the Post 
Office arrangements, Mr. Alex. Begg, in the absence of the post- 
master, Mr. Bannatyne, had the office removed from the store of 
Baimatyne & Begg and placed in the building now occupied by the 
Commercial Hotel, on Post Office street, where it remained until 
again removed by the Dominion Government into the present 
handsome building on Main street. 

On Monday, the 24th October, Donald A. Smith and Dr. C. J. 


Bird were chosen by a very respectable meeting of electors in 
Winnipeg as the first candidates for the House of Commons, Ottawa. 

In the meantime the first enumeration of the Province was 
being pushed rapidly forward, and the excitement of the elections 
was daily increasing. 

The little News Letter which we have already mentioned, played 
an unenviable part in that election, by endeavoring to excite popu- 
lar feeling in favor of violence, and urging the adoption of mob law. 
Unfortunately for himself, Dr. Scliultz became allied with this sheet 
and those who inspired it', and as he was a candidate for the House 
of Commons at the time, his cause was not served by the connec- 

A school house having been erected in Point Douglas we find 
the announcement of a concert given by a Mr. and Mrs. Steel on 
Nov. 23, in which the band of the Ontario Pities took port. 

About this time the Presbyterians were building "Knox 
Church," (lately abandoned and now used as a stable or storehouse) 
for on Wednesday, June 10, '70, a meeting was held for the 
purpose of taking steps to finish the church, and a committee of 
management was formed, consisting of Messrs. Armstrong, Pell 
and McMillan (Ontario Rifles), and Messrs. A. G. P. Bannatyne, 
D. Sinclair and James Ross. 

In the early part of November, '70, Mr. J. W. Taylor arrived in 
Winnipeg, having accepted the position of American Consul in 
this country. The American Government had been represented 
previous to Mr. Taylor's taking office by Major Robinson, who had 
earned the esteem and respect of every one residing here at the 
time. It will be our pleasure to show from time to time how well 
Mr. Taylor has earned the good will and respect of all classes of 
our resident community. 

On Oct. 19th Mr. S. Robertson, General Superintendent of the 
North-Western Telegraph Company, issued a letter calling for 
inforiiMition to enable him to procure the necessary poles for the 
erection of a telegraph line from Pembina to Winnipeg, to connect 
with the American wire. 

Early in November, 1870, Mr. H. J. Clarke, Q. C, from Mon- 
treal, arrived, and this gentleman was destined afterwards to take 


a very prominent part in the politics of the country. He com- 
menced his career by taking charge of the police business, in 
which he acted pretty much as judge, jury and prosecutor. 

Messrs. Mc Arthur & Martin (a new firm) having bought out 
McKermy's interest in his saw mill on Lake Winnipeg, commenced 
about this time the lumber business in town, but as building 
operations were commenced in earnest they were hardly able to 
supply the demand. Mr. A. E. Wilson (afterwards Wilson & 
Hyman) opened a general store and Mr. James Stewart established 
a Medical Hall, both in MeDermott's row. 

Mr. J. W. Taylor, on taking charge of the United States Con- 
sulate, removed his quarters to the upper portion of the building 
used by Mr. F. Gingras as a store. 

Here is the first application for a railway charter in Manitoba : — 

"Is hereby given that an application will be. made at the first meeting of the 
" Legislature of Manitoba for an Act to incorporate a joint stock company for the 
"construction of a railway from some points on Lake Manitoba, passing through 
"the Town of Winnipeg; and to connect with the nearest of the Minnesota 
" railways. 

Duncan Sinclair. 

Fort Garry, Nov. 13, 1S70. E. L. Bahisek. 

Election addresses from candidates for the first local Parliament 
of Canada were now becoming plentiful. 

On the lGth December the first performance of the Ontario 
Rifle, Musical and Dramatic Association was given. Air. Alex. 
Begg, to whom they had applied, rented them a building belong- 
ing to Mr. Bannatyne — with that gentleman's consent — in rear of 
the store (the same which is now used by Jack Benson as a feed 
stable), and also found the means which enabled the volunteers to 
decorate and place seats in the room. The decorations and stage 
appointments were excellent, the whole cost being about $1,000, all 
of which, to the credit of the volunteers, was afterwards repaid to 
Mr. Begg, The Ontario boys were greeted with crowded houses 
at each performance, and as a sample of the style of thing they 
were wont to regale us with, we will publish the first of their 



Musical and Dramatic Association". 

rresiilerit, Major Wainwright ; Manager, Quartermaster Sergeant J. R. Cameron; 


Stage Manager, Sergeant A. de C. Harvey; Leader of Orchestra, Bugle Major 
"Walker ; Vocal Director, Paymaster Sergeant Douglas. 

The first entertainment under the distinguished patronage of His Honor the 
Lieut. -Governor and Lady, 



On Friday Evening, Dec. 16, 1870. 


Pot Pourri (Kuhner) Orchestra 

Song of Expedition P. B. Douglas 

Concertina Song — " Bonnie Doon" H. M. Walker 

" Comic Song" W. S. Wood 

" Beautiful Bells" W. L. Baliuer 

"Ellen Bayne" J. Hackett 

Comic Song — " Simple Simon" ^in character) T. Tweed 

" Fairy Belle" W. R. Balmer 

Dandy Pat (in character) H. M. Walker 

Sleighing Glee Chorus 



On, The Long Lost Father. 

A new sensational burlesque, in three acts, never before played on any stage. 


Robinson Prospero — Monarch of all .surveys Campbell 

Caliban Friday — A faithful follower of Prospero W. S. Wood 

Tom Trusty — An interesting young man in love with Grace Swetinan 

Diddler Nipehcese — A purser, and a villian in love with Grace I. R, Cameron 

Grace Whatshername — A child of circumstances David Young 

Polly Pert — A damsel attending ( trace < English 

Tabby Feline — a real cat, "JO years old. 

Soldiers, Sailors, etc. 
6^_A plan of the box seats can lie seen at the bookstore of H. S. Donaldson, where 
seats can be secured. Tickets for sale at the following places : — Dr. Schultz's, Banua- 
tyne & Begg's, John Higgins', W. H. Lyon's, Davis Hotel and Garrett House. Box 
seats, "2 shillings ; pit, one shilling. Doors open at 7 o'clock p.m., performance to 
commence at half-past 7. 


The census of the Province was completed about this time, which 
showed the number of inhabitants in Winnipeg to be 215 persons. 
Winnipeg, however, was not an electoral district by itself, as will be 
seen by the following description of electoral division No. 18 in 

" No. 18 Winnipeg and St. John shall comprise all the settlements 
"on the east line of No. 10 and the mouth of the Assiniboine, on 
" the north side of the Assiniboine, and all the settlements on the 
"lied River, on the west side of it, from the mouth of the Assini- 
" boine down to the north line of Donald Matheson's lot, and on 
"the east side of the Eed River, from the north line of No. 12 to 


" the southern line of John McPhaiTs Lot, including the Town of 
" Winnipeg." 

An addition to Holy Trinity was nearly completed and opened to 
the public in an unfinished state, on Sunday Dec. 17th, 1870, 
when Archdeacon McLean (now bishop of Saskatchewan), otticiat- 
ed at 10 a. ni. and p. in. The church as enlarged was estimated 
to be capable of holding four hundred persons. 

Amongst our first lecturers we Hud Mr. Stewart Mulvey, then in 
tlie Ontario Rifles, delivering an address on "True Greatness" in 
the school room on the 14th Dec, 1870, which was listened to 
with great pleasure by some two or three hundred persons. 

The first election for the Local Parliament took place on Friday, 
the 20th Dec. 1870, and the following members were elected ; 
No. 1 Lake Manitoba, Angus McKay. 
2 Portage la Prairie, Fred. Bird. 

" 3 High Bluff, John Norquay. 

" 4 Poplar Point, D. Spence. 

" 5 Baie St. Paul, J. Dubue. 

" 6 St. Francois Xavier, West, -J. Royal. 

" 7 St. Francois Xavier, East, Pascal Breland. - 

" 8 Headingly, Jas. Cunningham afterwards took the seat. 

" 9 St. Charles, H. J. Clarke. 

" 10 St. James, Edwin Bourke. 

" 11 St. Boniface, West, Louis Schmidt. 

" 12' St. Boniface, East, Hon. M. A. Girard. 

"13 St. Vital, A. Beauchemin. 

" 14 St. Norbert North, Jos. Lemay. 

" 15 St. Norbert South, Pierre Delorme. 

" 16 St. Agathe, Geo. Klyne. 

" 17 St. Anne, Point de Chene, J. H. McTavish. 

" 18 Winnipeg and St. John, Donald A. Smith. 

" 19 Kildonan, .John Sutherland. 

" 20 St. Paxil's 1 >r. C. J. Bird. 

" 21 St. Andrews South, Edward Hay. 

" 22 St. Andrews North, Hon. Alfred Boyd. 

" 23 St. Clements, Thomas Bunn. 

u 24 St. Peters, Capt. Howard. 


At this time the establishment of the " Bank of Ruperts 
Land" was spoken of and application for a charter made, but it 
never was proceeded with. 

Mr. G. B. Spencer having been appointed collector of customs 
in Manitoba, arrived in Winnipeg about the end of Dec, '70, and 
immediately commenced^ organizing his department. 

The enlargement of "Holy Trinity" was finally completed by the 
1st January, 1871, and tenders for the erection of Grace Church 
in the Spring were called for by He v. George Young. 

The first auctioneer in Winnipeg was Mr. W. G. Fonseca, who 
we find advertising an extensive sale in Henry McKenny's store, 
on the 17th January, 1871. 

The First Cabinet of Manitoba was formed about the 12th Janu- 
ary, 1871, and consisted of the following gentlemen : — 
Hon. M. A. Girard, Provincial Treasurer. 
" Alfred Boyd, ". Secretary. ^ 

" H. J. Clarke, Attorney General. 
" Thos. Howard, Minister of Public Works and Ag- 
The Local Government now completed arrangements with A. G. 
B. Bannatyne for the use of his residence, to be used for Parliamen- 
tary purposes. The Building (since destroyed by fire), stood di- 
rectly behind where Parson & Richardson's Book Store stands at 
present. Here is what the Maultoban of January 21st, 1871, 
says on the subject. "The first Parliament of Manitoba will be 
" held in the House of A. G. B. Bannatyne, Esq., the best and most 
" commodious building in* Winnipeg, and occupying a central situa- 
" tion as regards the Province generally. The rooms are large and 
" comfortable, and will afford excellent accommodation, for the as- 
" sembled wisdom of the Province. Three of the large rooms at 
" the southern end of the house and one of the upstair rooms, are 
• " to be used for parliamentary purposes* The Government are de- 
" cidedly the gainers in this matter, while Mr. Bannatyne yields so 
" much of his house room at very considerable personal incouveni- 
" ence. 

On the 21st January, 1871, Dr. C. J. Bird retired from the can- 


didature for the House of Commons, and Dr. Schultz had it all his 

own way in Lisgar, until Mr. Colin Inkster stepped into the held. 

The first fresh oysters ever received into Manitoba, were import- 
ed on the first of February, by Bannatyne & b>egg, and it 
is needless to say that they were all sold in a day or two. At that 
time cove oysters half boiled were thought very good. 

The first barber in Winnipeg made his appearance in February, 
1871. He was a member of the Ontario Rifles, and having hired 
a room over Monchamp's saloon, on Tost Office .Street, he did 
a little (when off duty) in the tonsorial line. 

The officers of the Ontario and Quebec Rifles, having shown 
much hospitality to the residents of Manitoba in the shape of dances 
and dinners, it was decided that a citizens ball should be given in 
return to the military. It was the first great event of the kind 
ever indulged in by the people of the town, and as an interesting 
occurence, we give it an extended notice. The ball took place in the 
large building belonging to Mr. Andrew McDermott near the foot 
of Post-Office street, (and occupied by the Indian Department for a 
time). There were 300 invitations issued,and about 250 persons were 
present, and in consequence the rooms (which were tastefully de- 
corated) were literally jammed. The music was furnished by the 
band of the Ontario Rifles, and the dancing, which commenced soon 
after 8 p.m., was maintained untiaggingly till four o'clock in the 

The ladies present were a fair representation of the beauty and 
fashion of Manitoba. They looked to advantage in their own 
" lied River dances " — jigs, stathpeys and reels — to which one 
room was exclusively devoted — and were equally graceful in the 
galops, valses, quadrilles and schottisches which formed the staple 
dances of the other two rooms. 

The Lieutenant-Governor and Mrs. Archibald opened the ball. 


Governor and Mrs. Archibald, Miss Archibald, Mr. Hill, Mr. 
Poutilber, Capt. Dennison, Major Peebles, Major McLeod, Col. 
Jarvis and officers Ontario Rifles, Col. and Mrs. Jarvis, Officers 
Quebec Rifles, Col. and Mrs. Casault, Mr. Cyril Grahame, Mr. Jas. 
Ross, Mr. and Mrs. T. Taylor, Mrs. DonaMJRoss, Mrs. II. Logan 


Hon. Jas. McKay, Mr. and Mrs. Bernard K. Ross, Mr. and Mrs. 
Bannatyne, Miss Bannatyne, Dr. and Mrs. O'Donuell, Mr. and 
Mrs. A. Begg, Hon. H. J. Clarke, Q.C., Mr. Bobt. Cunningham, 
Mr. and Mrs. R. Tait, Mr. and Mrs. W. Eowand, Mr. and Mrs. J. 
G. Stewart, Miss A. Rett, Mr. and Mrs. J. H. McTavish, Mr. W. 
Cokhvell, Mr. and Mrs. J. Balsillie, Mr. and Mrs. H. McDermott, 
Mr. and Mis. Alex. Logan, Mr. J. H. Ashdown, Mr. Cross, Miss 
McTavish, Mr. Donald McTavish, Mr. Grant, Mr. and Mrs. Myles 
McDermott, Mr. and Mrs. Andrew McDermott, Mr. and Mrs. St. 
•John, Rev. Mr. Patterson, Mr. McClenighen, Mr. McKenzie, Mr. 
Ramsay, Mr. J. Grahame, Mr. Thomas Speuce, Mr. Armit, Capt. 
Villiers, Capt. and Mrs. Donaldson, Major and Mrs. Robinson, Mr. 
Strang, Mr. and Mrs. Gingras, Miss McDermott, Mr. Spencer, 
(Customs), Mr. Royal, M.l\, Mr. Dubuc, M.P., Mr. and Miss 
Sutherland, Mr. and Mrs. Sinclair, Mr. and Mrs. Fonseca, Miss 
Alice Logan and Mrs. Logan, the American Consul, Mr. and Mrs. 
Alex. Ross, Miss Matheson, Mr. George and Miss Annie Tait, 
Colin and Miss Inkster, Miss Isabella Inkster, Robt. McBeth, Alex, 
and Miss A. McBeth, Miss Margaret McBeth, Mr. Wm. and Miss 
Thomas, Mr. Wm. Bunn and Misses Bunn, Mrs. Clare, Mrs. W. 
Kennedy, Misses Lewis, Miss Rowland, John Lewis, Mr. and Mrs. 
Truth waite, Mr. Philip and Miss Kennedy, Misses Murray, Mr. 
Moir, Mr. Bunn, Mrs. Thomson and Mrs. Mowatt, Miss A. Mow- 
att, Mr. Abell, Mrs. Jas. Stewart, and Misses McKay, &c. 


The Masters of Ceremonies for the evening were : — Hon. James 
KcKay, Mr. Bernard It. Ross and Mr. Alex. Begg. 

The Stewards were:— Hon. H. J. Clarke, Dr. Bird, Dr. O'Don- 
uell, Hon. Alfred Boyd, Hon. M. A. Girard, Donald A. Smith, R. 
Tait, W. Rowand, A. G. B. Bannatyne, J. G. Stewart, J. H. Mc- 
Tavish, J. Balsillie, H. McDermott, Alex. Logan, &c. 

We annex the programme of dances, with explanation that there 
were in addition a considerable number of "extra dances." 

Quadrille, Valse, Galop, Lancers, Polka, Light Reel, Galop, Cot- 
tillion, Valse, Quadrille, Red River Jig, Lancers, Galop, Quadrille, 
Valse, Eight Reel, Sehottisehe, Lancers, Galop. 


With few exceptions, this was one of the finest balls ever given 

in this city, although at the time, we did not possess the advantages 
of the present day, for getting up such entertainments. 

Mrs. Sergeant Major Tower superintended the supper arrange- 
ments, and everyone accorded her with the highest praise for the 
excellent refreshments furnished. This hall tended to unite the 
different classes of people in a very great degree, and cemented the 
kindly feeling between" citizens and military. 

Mr. Samuel Fowler had the honor of being the first Customs 
hroker in Winnipeg, but business did not appear to thrive with 
him, as he soon gave way to Messrs. Evans & Steele. 

The first nomination of Candidates for the House of Commons 
ever held in Selkirk, took place in the Court House, Winnipeg, on 
the 28th July, 1871, when Messrs. D. A. Smith and John Taylor 
present Minister of Agriculture, were duly nominated The court 
house at that time, was the wooden wing of the present building, 
in which the County Court and Prothonotary offices are situated. 
It was built by Hon. J. Sutherland, and bought from him by the 
Local Government. 

We have already mentioned an application for a charter for the 
hank of Ituperts Land, well now we have to chronicle in '71 the 
application for another charter, that of the "hank of Manitoba" yet 
the residents of this Province have never enjoyed any bene- 
fits from either institution, — they were still-born. 

About this time a very strong feeling existed, in some Quarters, 
against Attorney-General Clarke, for alleged harshness towards 
members of the Ontario Rifles, in the discharge of his duty as first 
officer of the law. Whether the then Attorney-General exceeded 
his powers or not, is a question witli which we do not purpose to 
deal, but the feeling amongst Ontario people was, that Mr. Clarke 
who prided himself on being a great exponent of the rights of the 
French people during that period of his career, used his position to 
be unnecessarily severe on the volunteers when they chanced to 
come before him. In the case of one Hawaiian, a decided demon- 
stration of ill-will was made by the Ontarios against Mr Clarke, 
and in another instance it was feared that he would suffer 
violence at the hands of the men of the Uittalioii and their 


friends. It is a strange phase in the history of ex-Attorney- 
General Clarke, that while he was an out and out supporter of the 
French party, in fact their champion during the time we are now- 
writing of, we will yet have to chronicle before we close our narra- 
tive, his coquetry with the English, and, the final abandonment of 
the French, which culminated in an avowed hostility. 

To turn to pleasanter things we find our friend Mr. Victor P>eau- 
pre, who was the first Deputy Minister of Public Works in the 
Province, entertaining his confreres to a supper in Monchamp's 
on the 20th February, '71. Victor always was a good hearted soul. 

The first Dominion election in Manitoba took place on the 2nd 
March, 1871, and resulted, in the four districts, as follows: — 


1). A. Smith, "239 

John Taylor 103 

Majority for .Smith 1 36 


Pierre Delorme 172 

Win. Dease 29 

Majority for 1 )elorme 143 


Dr. Schultz 315 

Colin Inkster (55 

Majority for Shultz 250 


Angus McKay '.. 282 

Dr. Lynch 282 

The volunteers were commencing to obtain their discharges, 
and some of them were settling down to business in the town, 
amongst others, 11. Deacon opened a watchmaker's shop over 
the Manitobwn Office, the first of the kind in Winnipeg. Another, 
Sergeant Calderwood, proposed to establish a foundry, (scrap iron 
to be used) but lie never carried out his scheme. 
' On the loth March, 1871, His Honor Lieut-Governor Archibald 

• A new election followed later on. 


appointed the following gentlemen members of the Legislative 
Council of Manitoba : — 

Hon. James McKay, Hun. Donald Gunii, Hun. Solomon Ham- 
elin, Hon. Colin Inkster, Hun. Francois Dauphinais, Hun. Francis 
Ogletree, Hun. John Harrison O'JDonnell. President of Council, 
Hon. Jas. McKay ; Clerk of Assembly, M. St. John, Esq.; Clerk 
of Council, T. Spence, Esq. And on the 1.1th March the first 
meeting of the Local Parliament was opened by Governor Arcliihald. 
Amongst the ladies present at the opening were : — Mrs. and Miss 
Archibald, Mrs. Jarvis, Mrs. James Puss, Mrs. Alex. Begg, Mrs. 
Duncan Sinclair, Miss McTavish, Mrs. J. H. McTavish, Mrs. Dr. 
Bird, Mrs. B. II. Eoss, Mrs. Geo. Young, Miss A. Lewis, Miss J. 
Gunn, Mrs. Win. Kowand, Mrs. St. John, Mrs. Thomas Spence. 

The Governur was attended by a guard of one hundred men of the 
Ontario Pities. The Parliament Huuse was handsomely decorated, 
while Capt.Yilliers, the Usher of the Black liod, and Mr. de Plainval, 
as Sergeant-at-Auns, shone in all the resplendence of their court 
uniforms. Thj/^.rst opening of our Local Parliament has never 
since been equalled in this Province by any subsequent displays 
of the kind. The Manitoban, speaking of the event, says: — 
" It cuuld nut be in any respect so grand or costly a display, or on 
"so large a scale as the capital of the Dominion can boast on such 
" an occasion, but it had a completeness and dignity which were 
"creditable to our young Province." 

Hon. .los. Royal was elected the first speaker of the Legislative 
Assembly of Manitoba. As we are not at present writing a history 
of Manitoba, and as the deliberations of our Legislative Assembly do 
not come within the limits of a history of the city, we will cunrine 
ourselves simply to a cursory glance here and there at the doings 
of the Legislature, when they have a bearing on the interests of 

The first customs seizure of goods, in Winnipeg, took place on 
the 2:3rd March, 1871. It appears that Mr. Alex. McArthur, a 
now worthy Alderman, had imported a quantity of merchandise, 
on which, for souk.' reason, he declined to pay duty. Mr. Spencer 
who had not been idle since his arrival, in organizing the customs 
department, here, saw tit to differ with Mr. McArthur, and as the 


latter gentleman had made preparations to resist, the customs 
officer, Mr, Spencer, called to his aid the services of the police 
force. It is needless to say that Mr. Spencer gained his point. 
McArthur's store, on Main street, next to the Davis House, was 
carried by storm, and the seizure, under the Dominion custom's 
laws, was duly placed on record. 

It is within our recollection, seeing a large party of explorers in 
the interest of the Northern Pacific, camp out in the neighborhood 
of St. Cloud, Minn., in 1868, and we further remember that same 
camp being overturned during the night by a violent thunderstorm. 
The explorers referred to, were visiting the western prairies for the 
purpose of locating the line of the Northern Pacific. On July 1st, 
1870, the construction of the Northern Pacific was commenced at 
Thompson, a point 23 miles west of Duluth, on the Duluth and 
Mississippi R. It., and on the 4th March. 1871, the road was com- 
pleted, and the cars were running to Brainard. This was the near- 
est point, to fvhieh railways had reached in our direction, at 
the time we art ^ how writing of, but, there was every hope that the 
railroad would reach the. Red River before August of '71, and a 
line of boats was in process of construction, to run in the spring, 
in order to connect Winnipeg with the Northern Pacific P. P., as 
soon as that road reached the Ped River. 

As far back as March, '71, steps were taken by individuals in 
Manitoba, to inaugurate a Colonization Aid Society, for the pur- 
pose of promoting French Canadian Immigration. The men, or 
some of them, who took the matter in hand then, have since done 
nobly in the work, as may lie witnessed by the fact of our having 
so many French Canadian families living in our midst. Hon. 
Jos. Royal and Mr. Dubuc were amongst the earliest promoters of 
the scheme. (hi the other hand we have to record many enter- 
prises, projected by individuals, which since then, have proved to be 
mere bubbles, for instance, we may mention out; at this stage, 
" the North- West General Manufacturing and Investment Com- 
pany," which never came to a head. 

Everything now indicated a great change ahoutto take place in the 
commercial arrangements of the country. The fall brigade of carts 
sent to St. Cloud and Abercrombie, in the fall of '71, by our Win- 


nipeg merchants, was destined to be the last of the kind ever sent 
from here to the United States. Messrs. Hill, Griggs & Co., of St. 
Paul, were busy making preparations for carrying on a transporta- 
tion business on the Red River, and the Hudson's Bay Company 
had decided to place their Steamer International, on the same 
route, as a general freight and passenger boat. Word was received 
by our merchants at the last moment, that the United States Gov*. 
eminent would in future allow no more goods to pass through their 
territory, from Canada or Europe in bond, unless they were trans- 
ported by a regularly bonded line. This suddenly deprived our 
merchants from being able to send their own carts, and as it was 
customary to make advances to freighters during the winter, to. 
apply on their spring freights, some of our business men were 
rather embarrassed by the sudden change, they having already 
made advances when news of the change came. There is very lit- 
tle doubt that this was a bit of sharp practice on the part of J. J. 
Hill of St. Paul, for as it turned out in April, '71, when Hill, 
Griggs & Co.'s lUlv Steamer, the Selkirk, was ready to start for 
Winnipeg, she \v?*s the only bonded boat on the river. The Hud- 
son's Bay Co.'s Steamer International was not bonded, and there- 
fore she was not in a position to accept freight ; the consequence was 
Hill and his partners secured all the first freight in the spring, 
much to the annoyance of our merchants, who were obliged to 
pay the extortionate rate of four dollars per 100 lbs., from St. 
Paul to Winnipeg. Up to this time the rate of freight from 
St. Cloud (near St. Paul) to Fort Carry by the carts, had been 1G 
s. sterling per 100 lbs., but, as most of this was paid in trade to 
the freighters, at almost 100 per cent, profit, it can easily be seen 
the venture of Hill, Griggs and (Jo. was a very disadvantageous 
one to the merchants of Winnipeg. We will have occasion to re- 
fer to this steamboat business again, but in the meantime, will pro- 
ceed with current topics. 

Mr. C. li. Spencer, on the 25th March, '71, sent Mr. J. F, 
Bradley, to open a Custom House at Pembina, in order to be pre- 
paid for the river trade in the spring. 

About this time, a number of gentlemen formed a company for 
the purpose of erecting a brewery, under the name of the Manito-. 


ba Brewery Co. Tenders were solicited for the erection of the 
necessary buildings at Silver Heights, the site chosen for the 
establishment. We also observe in the beginning of April, an 
■advertisement, over the signature of Alex. Begg, Secretary 
of the Company, offering seed barley to the farmers in order to 
encourage the production of malt in this country. 

The first Good Templars' Soiree ever given in the Province was 
held in St. John's School, on the evening of the li8th March, 1871, 
at which we observe addresses were delivered by Rev. Ceo. Young, 
Rev. John Black, Mr. D. B. Whimster, Ensign Bell, (Ontario 
liirles) and Mr. Stuart M-ulvey. We also notice recitations were 
given by Mr. C. E. Fulthorpe, Mr. Deacon, and music on the bag- 
pipes by Mr. John Hackett. 

We see about this time, an evident sign of prosperity in the busi- 
ness of J. H. Ashdown, for that gentleman, rinding his trade in- 
creasing so raj>j£v*~:had to engage an assistant tinsmith. 

In April, 1871, the Fire Engine Co. was revived, Mr. J. H. 
McTavish having offered the use of the Company's Engine for the 
purpose. The following were elected on the 5th : — Captain, Mr. 
Kilvington; Lieutenant, Mr. Dawson; second Lieutenant, Mr. James 
Devlin ; Secretary, Mr. Simon Devlin; Treasurer, Mr. Ceo. Young; 
first Engineer, Mr. Marshall; second Engineer, Mr. Cromarty; 
first Branchman, Mr. Belleau. The Company was named "The 
Xor'-West Engine Company No. 1. The Company turned out for 
its first practice on the loth, and presented a fine appearance. 

It was at this time that Mr. Thos. Lusted began to extend his 
business, and commenced to build buggies and light waggons ; we 
hear of his importing a lot of spokes, felloes, hubs, and iron patent 
axles, the first importation of the kind ever brought into Bed River. 

On the 10th April, '71, Rev. Geo. Young commenced building 
operations on "Grace Church," the llev. gentleman superintending 
the work himself. Rev. Mr. Young was a clergyman, peculiarly 
fitted for establishing a church in a new country, he was not afraid 
of work, ami could have been seen, crow-liar in hand, as busy as 
any of the workmen, on the morning of the lUth April, assisting to 
move the heavy timbers used in the construction of the Church. 

The first experiment of roofing with tin was made about this 


time 07 Bannatyne & Begg, Mr. Jas. H. Ashdown having taken the 
contract. Tie building covered was their store, now used as a china 
hall by Stobart, Eden & Co. Only the other day we saw one of 
Mr. Ashdown's numerous workmen renewing Mr. Ashdown's 
own work of nine years ago. 

A grand farewell concert was given in the Theatre Royal, by 
the Ontario Rifles, on Wednesday evening, the 2Gth April, 71, un- 
der the patronage of Lieut. Col. Jarvis, C. M.'G., and officers of the 
battalion, after which the following advertisements appeared in the 


" will be sold by public or private sale, the entire property of the 

"Theatre Royal, consisting of scenery, clothing, stores, shirts, 

" stove-pipes, candles, curtains, flannels, fringes, &c, &c. Also 

"about 1500 feet of lumber, mostly half dressed, on 


"Parties wishing to b g y. pr ivately, can do so by addressing or call- 

" ing on ^^^ 

" Seug. Major Coyne, ) r , c . 
"Priv. D.Young, }^m. ofSale 

Thus ended the Theatre Royal after a short but brilliant existence, 
during which it was the means of bringing the volunteers and 
citizens more closely together in the bands of friendship. 

At this time when we are having so much excitement over the 
bridge question, it may be interesting to know that we had a lied 
River Bridge Company in 1871, but they never built a bridge, it 
was another of the many bubbles. 

On the 29th April, 1871, the steamer Selkirk, belonging to 
Hill, Griggs & Co., St. Paul, arrived here, commanded by Capt. 
Alex. Griggs. She was loaded to her hurricane decks with 
freight, and a few passengers. Through the exertions of Mr. Begg 
of the rirm of Bannatyne & Begg, and by an arrangement made 
between him and Mr. U. C. Kinsey, one of the owners of the Scl~ 
kt rk, that steamer landed her freight at the foot of Post-office .Street. 
The tirm of Bannatyne & Begg became the first warehousemen on 
the levee, and fittexl up a building for the purpose, on the spot 


■where warehouse No. 6 stands at present. Mr. Begg employed 
Mr. C. N. Bell, who having left the Ontario Rifles, was looking 
about for something to do, to act as warehouse clerk. Mr. Begg 
then with the assistance of a horse and scraper, went to work and 
levelled the bank so as to facilitate the landing of freight, thus 
constructing the first levee in the city, and securing for the mer- 
chants of Winnipeg a landing at a more convenient point than Fort 
Garry. There was considerable grumbling however on the part of 
business men when they were obliged to pay the excessive rates of 
freight charged by Hill, Griggs & Co. It is said that the first load 
of freight brought to this country by the Selkirk almost paid for 
the entire cost of her construction. It was also discovered about 
this time that the steamer International, on account of not being 
properly bonded, would not be allowed to run; and this fact, view- 
ed as a bit of sharp practice on the part of Hill, Griggs, threw the 
sympathy of the people entirely with the Hudson Bay Co. Mr. N. 
W. Kittson, of St^^l, the Hudson's Bay Company's agent at 
St. Paul, however,' assumed the ownership of the International, 
and although she was delayed for sometime at Georgetown, wait- 
ing for bonded arrangements to be made, she finally succeeded, and 
at once went into competition with the Selkirk. She however did 
not arrive in Winnipeg on her first trip from Georgetown, until 
1st June, thus allowing the Selkirk to monopolize freights until 

that time. 

Common lumber in the Spring of '71 sold S70 per thousand, and 
dressed at SI 00, which made building rather expensive. Fresh 
meat was difficult to obtain; the p rices paid for very indifferent 
oxen being from $100 to §110. 

Mr. A. P. Herald and Henry Cotu were the first butchers in 
Winnipeg, but very shortly they were followed by others, a- soon as 
Winnipeg began to increase in size. Mr. George, Findlay, of the 
Quebec Kifles, on obtaining his discharge, opened a shop at Dev- 
lin's hotel, a little south of where Dufour&Co's auction mart is 
to-day. Mr. Henry McDermott and Mr. Alex. Logan (our present 
mayor), were the first to bring in a drove of cattle to this country, 
a step which soon resulted in bringing down the price of fresh 


The first effort made to establish an Insurance Agency in this 
city, was by the St. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company, in 
May, '71, but they never succeeded to any extent. 

On the 10th May, 71, Mr. Ellwood surveyed Main Street, from 
near Grace Church to the Court House, lor the purpose of trading 
it. He acted under instructions from the Local Government. The 
.street was then graded to a width of 32 feet, leaving one rod on 
each side for sidewalks. The roadway was cambered, with a curve 
of 3 feet in the centre, and sloping sides. Post Office Street was 
also graded, and furnished with two culverts and tap drains. This 
was the commencement of street making in Winnipeg, but we 
had no sidewalks to speak of at that time. 

Messrs. Billy Smith (now of the Portage) and Mr. McLean, were 
it may be said the pioneer flat-boatmen of Winnipeg, although 
others had been in the business before them ; but they were the 
first to make it a regular and extensive undertaking. Many mer- 
chants availed themselves of the opportunity, until finally flat- 
boating on thei^'River became a very favorite method for bring- 
ing in supplies from the United States. 

The first General Quarterly Court held in Winnipeg sinee the 
Hudson's Bay Company's sway, sat on the 16th May, 71, Judge 
Johnson presiding. Mr. John Sutherland (now Hon. John Suther- 
land) was then sheriff, and Mr. Thomas Bunn clerk of the court. 
The first Grand Jury in the Province of Manitoba, were then sworn 
in as follows : — Alexander Begg, foreman, Messrs. John Gunn, Nor- 
bert Laronce, Malcolm Cumming, Wm. Henderson, I). Capulet, 
Bte. Bruce, Wm. Johnston, A. Johnston, 1). Harcus, M. Mclver, 
Bte. Boyer, W. Garrioch, Geo. McKay, Frs. Jamot. 

The court had hardly been established when we found several 
lawyers advertising their cards: Royal & Dubuc, James Boss, M.A., 
and I). M. Walker. The advent of these legal gentlemen, (for they 
were soon followed by more), was the commencement of the misery 
of the people of Winnipeg. 



First Parliament of Manitoba — Empty Charters — Ruins — Stage Coach 
— Road Agents — Livery — Le Metis— Kittson Link — Mimic War — 
Saw Mills — Building Operations — Point Douglas — Grace Church 
— Court House — Penitentiary — Kxpkim hon Men — Bricks — Lawyer 
Bain — Dominion Day, 1871— Death <>k Mr. Hill — Saddleks — Coal 
Oil and Crinoline — The "Liberal"— OraxgemeS — School Trustees — 
Post Office — Live Millers — A Smashing Trade — A Bread-Basket 
— Life Ixsuraxce — Provincial Agricultural Association — Attor- 
ney-General Clarke — Distinguished America — Yankee Edi iors — 
Dissipation — Prospkimty — Soirek — Rebellion Losses — Beef — Mutton 
Lacrosse — Soda Water — A Horse Leech — Van's Debut — Medicos — 
The Hammer — In Memoriam — Farmki: Brown — Fire Insurance 
New Industries — Fenian Raid— Absexce of Carnage — Bucolic Mani- 
toba — Paint — Thanksgiving — Immigration — The Schoolmaster 
Abroad — Dramatic— Dissolution — Col. Osborne Smith— Likct. -Gov- 
ernor DigEjiUXCED — St. Andrew's Society. 

On the 3rd May, 1871, the first session of the First Parliament 
of Manitoba was closed by His Honor Governor Archibald. 
Among the acts passed, the following had reference to the indus- 
tries of the country, " An act to incorporate the North- West Geu- 
" eral Manufacturing and Investment Co. of Manitoba," (never pro- 
ceeded with.) " An act to incorporate the Manitoba Brick and 
" Pottery Company." " An act to incorporate the Manitoba 
" Brewing Co," (both of which were practically carried on after- 
wards.) " An act to incorporate the Bed River Bridge Com- 
" pany." " An act to incorporate the Western Railway of 
" Manitoba," (neither of which ever existed, except on 'paper) 
The members of the Brick and Pottery Company went to a great 
deal of expense in bringing machinery from Chicago, which, how- 
ever, proved useless for our clay. The company afterwards 
manufactured hand-made brick, having been obliged to abandon 
their expensive machinery. 

On the 28tli of May, '71, a large portion of the wall of Fort 
Garry, just in front of where the present store is, tumbled ever, 
leaving a huge gap. Instead of rebuilding it, the Hudson's Bay 
Company re-arranged their retail establishment, so as to give it a 


frontage direct on Main Street, as it is to-day. They also made 
very extensive improvements on the interior of the store, evincing 
a disposition to keep even with the times. 

About this time, Captain 11. Blakely, of the Hrni of Blakely & 
Carpenter, proprietors of the Minnesota Stage Company, visited 
Winnipeg for the purpose of arranging for a stage line lietween 
Pembina and Winnipeg, to connect with the route south of the 
boundary. Through the efforts of A. (!. 15. Bannatyne, the post- 
master, he succeeded in making arrangements by wfyich he secured 
the carrying of the mails to and from the East, and, therefore, con- 
cluded to stock the road this side of Pembina, to run a stage and 
express line, which he expected to have on the highway by 

The first livery stable in the city was established in May, '71. 
by our friend William Harvey, who is still in the business. Jack 
Benson, at that time, was a prominent member of the Mounted 
Police force, under the command of Captain Villiers. 

The initial number of the French weekly newspaper Le Metis 
appeared on the 27th of May, '71. It was published by Mr. Jos. 

The International now commenced her regular trips, dating 
from the 1st June, ;*f^*> irritated were the merchants at the 
owners of the Selkirk, that ere long M. Kittson found that the 
greater portion of the freight to this country passed through his 
hands, while the Hill Griggs boat ran with light loads. This con- 
tinued until, finally, Hill, Griggs & Co., apparently, sold out to 
Kittson, although, as it afterwards appeared, they merely amalga- 
mated to get rid of the odium attached to them. Thus Mas com-: 
menced the famous Kittson line, which every year afterwards 
added new boats to their fleet, until they became a wealthy and 
powerful corporation, and almost imassailable monopoly. 

On the 3rd of June a disgraceful affair occurred opposite the 
Davis House, which, we are happy to say, was about the last open 
expression of ill-feeling between the volunteers and French half- 
breeds. It appears that a brother of Ambrois Lepine with a few 
companions got into a dispute with some volunteers and others 
while drinking in the Davis House. The dispute ended in blows, 


•and in a moment Lepine and his friends found themselves ejected 
into the street. Then a miniature battle took place ; the half- 
breeds were joined by some .sympathisers, and the volunteers and 
their friends issued from the Davis House. Sticks, chairs, boots, 
bottles, and hard mud in chunks flew in every direction, and several 
of the party were seriously injured, amongst whom was Lepine, 
who had his head cut open by a blow from a fence board in the 
hands of his assailant. The melee lasted only a few minutes when 
it was put an end to by the police before any seyious consequence 
resulted. On the 31st May, 1871, we have to chronicle the arrival 
of our friends W. Banning and YV. It. Dick, who have since then 
become famous as mill-owners in this city. Building operations 
were now being prosecuted with vigor by several of the citizens of 
Winnipeg, Mr. A. G. B. Bannatyne commenced the fine residence 
in which he now resides. Mr. J. H. Ashdown, finding his premises 
too small on Tost Office Street, erected a store for himself on Main 
Street. This" building was moved not long since to give place to 
Ashdown's brick block. The size of Mr. Ashdown's premises 
erected in 1871 was 20 x 40, two storeys; it was rlat roofed and 
covered with tin. Our present city clerk, erstwhile of A. M. 
Brown & Co., erected jvhat was then considered a very fine building 
for the business it.- Toe firm. These premises were afterwards 
enlarged and occupied by C. W. liadiger & Bro. Messrs. Higgins, 
Lyon and Davis made improvements in their buildings on Main 
Street. Mr. F. Gingras completed his private residence, where 
it stands to-day by itself, opposite Stobart, Eden & Go's. Dr. C. J. 
Bird built the dwelling now occupied by Dr. Cowan, and Mr. 
Strang finished a neat house for himself in rear of F. Gingras' 
dwelling. At Point Douglas a number of houses were erected, 
amongst others we may notice those of Hon. J. Sutherland, Messrs. 
Alex. Sutherland, jr. ; Quarter-Master Armstrong, Mr. YV. G. 
Fonseca, Mr. Wm. Logan, and Mr. J. llackett. In the meantime 
the erection of Grace Church was progressing rapidly. The building 
was 30x50, with a lecture room or vestry behind 18x20. It was 
ornamented with eight stained glass windows, and a neat vestibule 
adorned the main entrance. A spire crowned the roof of the 
church, and altogether it gave promise of being a credit to the city 


and the Rev. Geo. Young, who worked so assiduously to provide a 
suitable place of worship for his people. Rev. -Mr. Young had built 
a ne<it parsonage adjoining the church in which he held services 
until such time as Grace Church should be completed. The building 
used at the time as the Court House and Jail was found to be 
altogether inadequate for the purposes for which it was intended, 
especially in regard to the safe keeping of prisoners. Arrangements 
were therefore made by the Government with the Hudson's Bay Co., 
by which a building at the Stone Fort was rented for ;i Gaol, and 
Mr. 8. L. Bedson, of the Quebec Rifles, the present efficient War- 
den of the Provincial Penitentiary at Stoney Mountain, was placed 
iu charge as Governor of the institution. 

Mr. John Hackett was the first baker in Winnipeg, and having 
it all his own way for a time, did a thriving business. 

We have now to chronicle another step in the right direction 
made by postmaster Bannatyne. In June, '71, he had boxes ar- 
ranged in the Post Office, for the use of merchants and others, and 
the work was very creditably done dy Mr..G. H. Kelland, who is 
at present carrying on a carpenter and builder's business in the 
log building near thg^Jemperance Hall. 

The volunteers of the 1st and 2nd Battalions who did not wish 
to remain in the North West, returned at the expense of the Do- 
minion Government to Canada, about the middle of June, '71. 
They went by the way of Thunder Day and Lake .Superior. 

A Mr. Spice, about this time, started a brick yard, close to the 
Main Road (now Main Street), behind Mr. E. Shore's store, a little 
north of the City Hall. He made an excellent sample of brick, 
but for some reason did not continue long in the business. Dr. 
Schultz erected some small compact buildings of brick, behind his 
then store; the same being at present occupied by auctioneer's 
stands, and occupying rooms on the second story of one of these 
buildings, we find, about the latter end of June, '71, ourfriendMr. 
John F. Bain established in the law business. Mr. Bain from the 
fust, took a leading position as a lawyer, and has continued to hold 
the same ever since. 


Here is a notice regarding storage charges in '71 : 


"All goods landed on our wharf will hereafter be subject to a charge 
"cf 8c. per 10011k. 

,"lf not taken away .it the end of three days, ."»c. storage in ad- 
dition will be charged. 

" Immigrant's goods and chattels free, unless stored by request. 
"Winnipeg, June 14, 1871." 

The first celebration of Dominion Day was conducted in Winni- 
peg as follows : 

"1871. DOMINION DAY. 1871. 
" <;i:ani> uklebkatiux. 
"The Anniversary of the Dominion of Canada will be celebrated in 

" liy, Trotting Matches, ltunning Matches, Foot Uaces, 
" Standing Jumps, Ilunning Jumps, High Leap, Sack and Blind- 
"fold Race, Climbing the Greasy Pole, Putting the Stone. Quoits, a 

"Cricket Match, Foot Ball, Throwing the Sledge, etc. 

"$.100 OF PKIZKS 
" will be distributed. The Firemen will process by Torchlight in 
"in the evening. Music'during the day. 

" <iol) SAVE THE QUEEN ! " 
A very sad event took place on the 4th of duly, '71, which cast 
a gloom over the whole^Province. We refer to the death of Mr. 
(1. W. Hill, Private Secretary of Lieut. Governor Archibald, who 
by his kind and genial'manners, had won the good-will and respect 
of all those with whom he came in contact. His body was found 
about half a. mile above Silver Heights, with a pistol wound in the 
forehead, and in his right hand was grasped a revolver, with two 
chambers discharge. 1. P,y the side of the body lay Mr. Hill's hat 
and walking-cane, and also a cigar half-smoked. The cause which 
drove the unlortunatejiian to commit the terrible deed is unknown, 
although there were several surmises current at the time. His 
untimely end was much deplored in the Province, as during his 
short stay Mr. Hill had made a host of friends. 


'Hie fourth of July, '71, was duly celebrated by the American 

residents of Winnipeg. A salute of thirteen guns was tired oppo- 
site the U. S. Consulate in the afternoon, and shortly afterwards, 
Consul .1. W. Taylor delivered an eloquent address to a crowd of 
people on Main Street, in front of Gingras' store; and in the eve- 
ning a grand excursion took place on the In£er7iatioual, which 
had been kindly placed at the disposal of of the excursionists by 
Mr. .1. H. McTavish. Mr. G. \V. Hill took part in this excursion, 
and appeared in the best of spirits. He must have committed the 
rash act which resulted in his death, shortly after his return to the 
Governor's residence, which then was at Silver Heights, 

The first saddler and harness-maker in Winnipeg was Mr. liobt. 
Stalker, who carried on his business for a time in one of McDer- 
niott's buildings on Tost Office Street. He removed however after 
a while to Headingly and was succeeded by Mr.Arch. Wright. 
The latter gentleman, like Mr. Ashdown, suffered in his business 
during Kiel's reign, by being made a. prisoner and incarcerated in 
Fort Carry, but after his release from prison, he made up for lost 
time. He was a most industrious and careful man, and rapidly 
built up a business which has been increasing ever since, and to- 
day he can boast of employing a number of skilled hands, and of 
turning out work equal to any to lie found in the Dominion. 

While business was on the increase in the town of Winnipeg there 
were several flourishing stores at Point Douglas, amongst which 
we may name those of W. G. Fonseca and Iv L. Barber; in fact 
tunes in that classic quarter were much more lively then than 
they are to-day. In connection with Mr. Fonseca, we may men- 
tion that he was the first merchant in lied River settlement to im- 
port tail 'ail and lamps, as well as hoop skirts. This first con- 
diment of coal oil sold at 85 per gallon, and a common -lass 
lamp sold at the same figure, while, even at these prices, Mr. F. 
' auld not supply the demand. He had some difficulty in introdu- 
•:ug his hoop skirts, as in those early days, the ladies looked on 
them with suspicion, and as a questionable novelty, and could 
hardly be persuaded to Wear them. 

' ►uthe 11th duly, 71, the Manitoba Liberal appeared. It was 
• l I'-sp'-r a little larger than the Manitolkm, and a decided improve- 


ment on the little News Letter in every respect. Mr. Stewart 
Mulvey was the editor, and the paper was published by a company 
of subscribers in the Province. It was agin the Local Govern- 
ment, and at the commencement had a set-to with the Manitoban. 
The Orangemen, on the 12th, celebrated their anniversary, Lodge 
1307, Mr. Stewart Mulvey, master, mustering some To to 8U mem- 
beis on that occasion. 

On Tuesday, the 18th July, Messrs. Stewart Mulvey, VV. G. 
Fonseca and Arch. Wright were elected the first School Trustees 
in Winnipeg. The Custom House about this time was removed to 
one of Mr. McDermott's large buildings, lately occupied by Miss 
Bannatyne as a school, and there it remained till the present Custom 
House Mas built. 

The Queen's Hotel, since known as Cronn's Home, was now 
opened by Messrs. Sinclair & Adams, and was a popular place of 
resort for some time. Towards the end of July Mr. Dewe, Post 
Office Inspector, paid his first visit to Manitoba for the purpose of 
organizing the Department in this Province. He performed his 
work thoroughly, ami left our mail arrangements in a much better 
state than they were when he arrived. 

Messrs. Chisholm and.Bubar were our first real live millers, for 
having rented McDermott's mill near the foot of Post Office 
Street, they ran it in a way to astonish people, especially old Mr. 

Messrs. A. M. Brown & Co. having completed their new stores, 
opened out a very fine stock of dry goods, groceries and liquors and 
carried on what might be termed a smashing trade. Mr. Thomas 
Lusted had the honor of turning out the first bakers waggon ever 
driven in Manitoba, and Mr. John Hackett was the owner thereof. 
It created a sensation, but Mr. Hackett, while basking in the sun 
of popular admiration at his bread box on wheels, nearly had his 
shop burned down over his ears. A scarcity of water on that 
occasion rendered the tire engine useless, but willing hands with 
buckets in them did good service, and the breadshop was saved. 
We observe in 1871 an advertisement of the /Etna Life Insurance 
Company of Hartford, Conn., with P. Simpson agent for Manitoba, 


but it is strange how backward our Canadian offices were in operating 
in this country. 
The Manitoba Provincial Agricultural Association held their first 

meeting on the 1st August, 1871, when the folio wing, officers were 
elected: — G. B. Spencer, President; Hon. Jas. McKay, 1st Vice- 
President; W. B. Hall, 2nd Vice-President ; J. S. Lynch, M. !>., 
Secretary ; and John Taylor, Headingley, Treasurer. Patron, His 
Honor Lieut. -Gov. Archibald. We have neglected to mention a 
noted place of resort, namely, Garrett's Hotel, which was the log 
house situated this side of Hondo's Hotel. It was kept by one 
Garrett, who in the early days of Winnipeg was something of a 
lawyer, doctor and stump orator, though with all his versatility of 
genius never possessing much influence amongst his fellow settlers. 

A discreditable occurrence took place on the arrival of Attorney- 
General Clarke, from a visit to Canada, which although disgrace- 
ful in itself, at the same time showed clearly the estimation in 
which Mr. Clarke was held at that time by a number of ex-volun- 
teers from Ontario. As we have already mentioned it was thought 
by many that Mr. Clarke was over severe and unjust towards the 
volunteers, and so strong indeed was this- feeling that Mr. Clarke 
on several occasions was forcibly reminded of it in public and par- 
ticularly so in this instance. A large crowd went to the boat and 
hooted and yelled upon his making his appearance, with his 
revolver in his hand. A number of his friends, however, crowded 
round him and accompanied him as a. bodyguard from the steamer 
to the Custom House, where a posse of American editors were 
being entertained by the townspeople. Mr. Clarke, whilst the idol 
of the French at that time, was most unpopular amongst the 
greater portion of the Ontario people. 

When Mr. Clarke departed for Montreal, on the 12th May, it 
was feared by some, that he was in danger of bodily harm, ami 
steps were taken to protect him, but in this connection we may re- 
mark, that Mr. Clarke throughout all these difficulties, fared the 
musie like a man, and there is no record of the slightest display of 
cowardice on his part on any occasion. The Liberal of the day 
attacked him for showing his revolver, which, if not altogether, be 
nttiug in a misister of the crown, and Attorney General, finds some 


palliation in the fact that he was in danger at the hands of the 
mob. Yet Mr. Clarke recently contested Rockwood essentially an 
Ontario Constituency. Such is life ! The editorial party which 
visited this city in '71, contained some very distinguished literary 
men, amongst whom we may mention Bayard Taylor, of X. V. 
Tribune, Chas. A. Dana, of X. V. Sun, J. C. Evans, X. Y. World, 
F. C. Bowman, X. Y. Herald, Governor Bross and J. H. Harper, of 
Harper Bros., Consul Taylor, who did all in his power to entertain 
his friends, succeeded in obtaining for them a hearty reception. 
The stay of the American Editors though a short one, was at the 
same time pleasant. The old Custom House resounded with 
speeches, songs, and the explosion of champagne corks, until our 
friends from the union, were forced to acknowledge that " we were 
undeniably a set of jolly good fellows", which they did in a 
manner, decidedly refreshing. 

About the 1 lith August, '71. Mr. Ashdown, removed into his 
store, on Main street, which at that time, was regarded as hardly 
central enough for trade, but which to-day is graced by the finest 
business blocks iu Winnipeg. 

The "Theatre Royal" was now fitted up as an immigrant house, 
by the Government, and Victor Beaupre placed in .charge. 

A. M. Brown & Co' continued adding to their premises, and Dr. 
Schultz to erect brick buildings in the neighborhood of where 
Brouse's Hotel now is. 

A brother of M. Moberly, the present engineer of the South 
Western Railway, had for some time been organizing and outfit- 
ting a Canadian Pacific exploring party, to proceed to the Rocky 
Mountains, and report on the best route for the C. 1*. IJ. A few 
friends assembled at the Queen's Motel, to give him a farewell 
dinner. There were present Mr. G. B. Spencer in the chair, and 
on the right of the chairman sat M. Moberly, and on the left 
Consul J. W.Taylor. Dr. Sehultz occupied the vice-chair, and 
among the guests were Col. Griggs, of St. Paul, Mr. Bradley, of 
the Custom House, Pembina, Mssrs. A. M. Brown, C, W. Radiger, 
Stewart Mulvey, Alex. Begg, and others. 

On the 1 Htli August, Judge Johnson commenced an investiga- 


tion of claims for Rebellion losses, which resulted happily for some, 
;iik1 Dr. Schultz in particular. 

The importation of heel" cattle from the United States had now 
commenced in earnest, for we hear of the Hudson's Bay Company 
importing 210 head in August. 

The Scott Centenary was not forgotten in Winnipeg, for, on the 
22nd August, 1871, a large assemblage of Winnipeggers sat down 
down to a splendid supper in the Queen's Hotel. The chair was 
occupied by A. G. B; Bannatyne, Esq., and addresses were de- 
livered by the chairman, Messrs. Dr. O'Donnell, B. Cunningham, 
J. \Y. Taylor, W. Drever, (1. B. Spencer, and others. Mr. Alex. 
Murray, during 1871, imported several lots of sheep from the 
States, one of his flocks amounting to 180 head. It was estimated 
that there were, at that time, between 5,000 and 0,000 .sheep in 
the settlement, and the erection of a woollen mill was spoken of. 
The. Prince Itupert's Lacrosse Club was organized in the latter part 
of August, President, Sergeant Champion (now of Merchants 
Bank) ; vice, George McGinn ; Held captain, J. Thurston; secre- 
tary an«l treasurer, Col. -Sergeant .Roberts ; and on the 24th, the 
anniversary of the occupation of Fort Garry by the British troops, 
was celebrated by a dinner at the Queens. The first soda-water 
fountain imported into the country was brought in by Dr. C.J. Bird, 
and set in operation in his drug store, where Dr. Cowan now re- 
sides. In September, our friend, \V. h\ Alloway, set up business 
for himself, as a veterinary surgeon, the first of that useful profes- 
sion in this city. 

The first stage arrived in Winnipeg, on Monday, the 11th Sep- 
tember, 1871, bringing six passengers, amongst whom was the 
Hon. M. A. Girard. The first arrangement was a tri- weekly stage, 
and this new departure was considered a great boon to the Winni- 
peg travelling public. Mr. Alexander Begg was the first stage 
and express agent in Winnipeg, and continued in charge until re- 
lieved bv our good-natured fellow-citizen " Van." Mr. Bc"<> 
not at all sorry to resign in Van's favor, as in those days it was a 
'■•isc of being up till midnight, waiting for the arrival of stage, 
and at four in the morning to start it off with mails and pas 


We have inadveitently neglected to mention that Dr. O'Donnell 
commenced his now extensive practice in this city, immediately 
after the Rebellion," in fact he was liberated from prison by Kiel for 
the purpose of attending some patients, and soon afterwards, Dr. 
Campbell was added to the list of practitioners, but did not remain 
long. We then find Drs. Tnrver and Pare established here, 
neither of whom are at present in Manitoba. Mr. Fonseca was 
succeeded in the auctioneer business by M. Lyster Hayward, and 
we find a Mr. Jones opening an opposition establishment to Mr. J. 
H. Ashdown. We have now to chronicle an event which cast a 
gloom over a large number of our towns-people, We refer to the 
death of James Ross, Esq., a man who had a large circle of friends 
in the Province, and who had identified himself in many ways with 
the progress of the country. His death was a great loss to the 

On Sunday, the 17th Septembe.1, 1871, the dedication of Grace 
Church took place, the morning and evening services being en- 
ducted by Rev. George Young, and those in the afternoon by 
Rev. M. Robinson, of High Bluff. Messrs. Dawson & Gard- 
ner were the builders, M. Scheick doing the plastering work. 
Many of our readers will not have forgotten the snug reading-room 
of Mr. R. .Simpson on Post Office Street which was in full blast- 
about this time, and the little card parties, &c, which took place 
there in the evenings will long be remembered by a few of our 
citizens. Mr. James Henderson now appeared upon the scene as 
the first manufacturer of furs in Winnipeg, in whicfe business he 
continued to engage for some time. A meeting was Killed towards 
the end of September by II. Cunningham to take into consideration 
the necessity for a tire insurance in the town. The meeting was 
held in the Custom House, when a great deal of talking was done 
and a variety of resolutions passed, in which it was decided that 
the company be based upon the proprietary principle. The capital 
was limited at SI iMi.DOO and a. committee formed to regulate the 
issue of stock. Nothing ever came of this effort however, although 
there Mere men of large capital interested in the matter, for, like 
many of the early schemes in this city, it ended in smoke — a 
fitting tribute to a fire insurance company. A general store business 


was started about this time at Point Douglas by Sutherland & Gunn, 

and Mr. W. Palmer Clarke made a commencement in trade in the 
town proper. 

We now come to the 'great event of 1871, which threw the 
whole Province into a state of excitement unequalled by anything 
since the rebellion. We refer to the Fenian invasion of that 
year. Several rumors had been afloat respecting suspicious. 
movements of the Fenians on the other side of the boundary, in 
which O'Donohue, of rebellion fame, seemed to be implicated, hut 
little attention, was paid to these reports. At last word 
came that the H. 1>. Co.'s post at Pembina had been taken, and 
immediately a Governor's proclamation w;is issued over the signa- 
ture of Hon. Thos. Howard, Provincial Secretary, calling upon the 
inhabitants to rally round the Mag, and enroll themselves as volun- 
teers. The appeal was answered to nobly, and in a short space of 
time a number of recruits answered to the roll call, and marched 
for the frontier under command of Mayor Irvine. We have not 
space to give full particulars of this raid, but we cannot help 
recording the alacrity with which young men and old turned out 
to defend the Province. Gilbert McMicken, Esq., the newly 
appointed Lands Agent, arrived in the midst of this excitement, 
and having had considerable experience in counteracting Fenian 
invasions in other parts of Canada his services were at once secured, 
and his experience in such matters proved of value. The conduct of 
Col. Wheaton, the American officer at Pembina, in putting a stop to 
the whole affair by arresting O'Xeil and O'Donohue at the H. B. Co.'s 
post, is worthy of great praise. A strong feeling existed at the time 
that this Fenian scare was only a prelude to another rebellion -on 
the part of the French, but tins to a certain degree was contradicted 
by the fact that the French in a body tendered their services to. 
Governor Archibald. The only fault to be found was that they 
were r.ither late in coming to the front, liiel was at the head of 
these French volunteers, and fault was found with Governor Archi- 
bald for having shaken hands and buried the hatchet with the 
i'X-President of the rebellion. We must say, however, that there 
'•\:i-; too much of a disposition at the time, to throw discredit on 
thf feelings and intentions of our French neighbors, and whatever 



may have been the portion of truth or falsehood in the rumors 
atfcat at the time, it behoves us as historians to give them the lull 
credit of their outward arts, which undoubtedly evidenced a dis- 
position of loyalty. The capture of O'Neil and O'Donohue put an 
end to the raid, during which, although there was much excitement, 
there was no blood spilt. The first Provincial Agricultural Exhi- 
bition of the Province, which opened on the 4th October, was almost 
a failure on account of the Fenian diversion, although there were 
about 500 entries, and many of the articles exhibited fully equal 
to those of any other part of the Dominion. 

Messrs. Haines & Burling now opened up an opposition harness 
shop to Arch. Wright, and Thomas Lusted removed his waggon 
shop from the town to Point Douglas, where at present his resi- 
dence stands. 

lJ. P. Meade, who was the first painter who regularly started 
business in Winnipeg, was now followed by Messrs. Kilmington & 
McCabe in that line. Mr. Farquharson, however, had done some 
Very tine fancy painting, in the houses of several of the settlers 
previous to Mr. Meade's time, but he did not pursue the business 
regularly, although a very fine workman. 

Governor Archibald, on the loth of October, issued a proclama- 
tion thanking the people of the Province for their loyal conduct in 
turning out so readily to resist the Fenians. 

Mr. J. A. X. Provencher arrived in Winnipeg during October, 
'71, as Immigration Agent for the Dominion. 

On the 31st October, '71, a new school was opened at Point 
Douglas, and our first real live schoolmaster was Mr. Lux ton. It's 
not on record that the boys found him a severe taskmaster. Here 
is w,hat the Man'tiobav, of the 28th, says on the subject: — "The 
" Winnipeg Public School will be opened, on Monday, at Point 
" Douglas. Mr. Lux ton, we understand, will conduct the institu- 
" tiou, and, with such a principal, we augur well for its success." 
During the autumn an amateur dramatic club was formed, with 
the following officers ; — Mr. L. (!. Plainval, director; W.Jones, 
stage manager; .1. MeD. Sweetman, treasurer; Frank Clarke, sec- 
retary. The Manitoba/it, finding its premises too small, moved 
into a larger building on the same street, ami the Post-Office was 


enlarged by moving into the end of the building just vacated by 
the Manitoban. 

Out of seeming evil, still educing good, is an old saying, and it 

proved to Ik.* correct in the case of the Fenian raid, for, on the 
strength of that little excitement, the Dominion Government de- 
cided to despatch another military expedition to Manitoba, much 
to the satisfaction of our towns-people, who naturally anticipated 
increased impetus to trade. 

In the beginning of November, 1871, the firm of Bannatyne & 
Beo-o- dissolved, after ;i partnership in which, next to the Hudson's 
Bay Company, they had doiv the largest business in the North- 
West. In addition to a large fur-trading department, they carried 
on an extensive general business, and hugely supplied the Gov- 
erment surveyors with their outfits. The first supplies furnished 
for the C. 1\ B. came from their establishment, and several of our 
merchants now, when they were commencing business life in this 
city, were indebted for aid and countenance to the old firm of Ban- 
natyne & Begg. 

Lieut.-Colonel W. Osborne Smith, (.'. M. G., now came amongst 
us for the first time as Deputy Adjutant-General, commanding No. 
10 Military District (Manitoba.) 

At this time, there were a number of people in Winnipeg who 
took ever,v opportunity to denounce Governor Archibald, and mat- 
ters finally became so unpleasant, that it was generally believed 
that he would not remain long in the Province, and names of 
several public men were mentioned as his probable successor, 
amongst others that of Hon. Alexander Morris, who did eventually 
succeed him. 

On Tuesday, 7th November, '71, the St. Andrew's Society in this 
city was formed, the following gentlemen being the first officers : — 

President — Donald A. Smith; 1st Vice — A. G. P. Bannatyne; 
2nd Vice — A. M. Brown; Secretary — T. F. Pain; Treasurer — ■ 
J. J. Hargrave; Chaplain— lie v. John Black; Piper — I. W. 

The Manitoba College was opened on the lfith October, with the 
Rev. John Bryce as Principal and Professor. 



The Second Expedition — .Cavt. Scott — "Shake" — Livekymex — Mass 
Meetings — Goveksmex r Denounced — [solated Risks — St. Andrew's 
Day — Loud Gordon — First Telkgram — Assistant Recetvkr-General 
— Lkgal — Hon. Jxo. Norqu ay— Thirsty Souls — Generous Winnipeg- 
GKRS — Point Douglas Lots— Charters ad Nauseam— Law— Shriev- 
alty — Masonic — Ministerial Suuabrles — French Print isc — Hon. 
Jos. Royal — " Trade Review " — In Kxtrem is— Incorporation — «« Box 
axd Cox" — Bubbles — Parliamentary — Evangelistic — Froth — Water 
Works — New Industries— Bricks and Mortar— The "Spheres" — 
Bitter Beer — u Gazette" and "Trade Review"— Cabinet Changes 
— W. Murdoch, C. E.— Foxseca's Museum— High Art— St. Patrick's 
Day — Begg's Magnanimity — W. J. Mac.wi.ay — Pilgrims— Agricul- 
ture — Ladies' School— Registry Office— J. H. Ashdowx— Cabby — 
Governor Archibald — St. George's Society— Express— " Van " — 
Germania— A Live Banker — Hill, Griggs .t Co.— Music— New 
Citizens— " B and S."— Building Enterprise — Rifle Association— 
Hoppers— iMroRTs— Hon. Alexander Morris — Convivialities— W. F. 
Luxton — Red River Junks — Dominion Elections — Runs. 

On the 18th November, 1871, the Second Expedition of Volun- 
teers from Canada, arrived in Winnipeg. Captain Scott (our pre- 
sent member for the city) was in command of the men from (Jol- 
liny-wood to this place, and from every source the highest encomi- 
urns were paid this officer, for the ability he displayed in the dis- 
charge of his difficult duties. He brought the expedition through 
in excellent style, and the volunteers were loud in their praises 
of their leader. On the arrival of the troops, they were welcomed 
by the citizens and presented with an address, signed by John 
McGregor, Win. F. Luxton, R. A. Davis, W. Palmer Clarke, J. 
Spencer Lynch and others. 

About this time, our friend, J. II. Benson, opened his livery 
stable, in a small way at first, it is true, but he was not very long 
before he had to extend his premises. The building which he first 
\ised was the old log stable now occupied by Geo. Kellond as a 
carpenter shop on the east side of Temperance Hall. Air. Benson 
came to this country in charge of the voyageurs with the first ex- 
pedition, and, afterwards, was sergeant of the Mounted Police, and 


actin« captain of the same when ont on active duty. To look at 
his tine stables to-day, one can judge that by close attention to 
business he has succeeded wonderfully. 

Winnipeg has ever been notorious for mass meetings, but in its ' 
early days the slightest pretext was sufficient for some one to call 
the citizens together, to indulge very often in nothing but bun- 
combe. On the 4th of November, a meeting took place for the 
purpose of denouncing the Government' of the day, which was 
pretty much of a farce. 

Messrs. J. & 1>. McVicar about this time moved their store to 
Point Douglas, and, for a while, carried on a large business 

The Isolated Risk Insurance Co. is the first fire office which 
ever did any business of importance in Manitoba. Its risks were, 
however, chiefly taken in the country. This company established 
an agency in this Province, under the management of Arch. Young, 
about the middle of November, '71. 

The first celebration of St. Andrew's Day, in Winnipeg, took place 
on the 30th November, '71. Services were conducted by lie v. 
John Black in the afternoon, and in the evening a large number 
of gentlemen sat down to dinner in the hall over Mr. Boyd's store. 
Amongst those present, we may mention Messrs. A. G. B. Ban- 
natyne, A. M. Brown, J. F. Bain, Major Gerraghty, Capt. Scott, 
Rev. Mr. Bryce, Attorney-General Clarke, Hon. Dr. O'Donnell, 
Hon. Mr. Royal, Mr. Palmer Clarke, Mr. Spencer, Dr. Bird, R. 
Cunningham, and others, John Hackett, as usual on such occa- 
sions appearing in complete Highland costume, with his pipes 
going full blast. 

Towards the end of the year mass meetings were being held 
everywhere, by parties wishing for a dissolution of Parliament, 
petitions on the subject were sent to the Lieutenant-Governor, 
and mass meetings were called to hear His Honor's reply. It was, 
in fact, a mass meeting age, but nothing of importance came 
of it. 

Our readers will be presented, later on in this work, with a sketch 
of the career of Lord Gordon in Manitoba. In 1871 the American 
press reported tliat the Northern Pacific Railway Company had 


sold Lord Gordon a large tract of land on their line, 180 miles 
west of Duluth, for the purpose of bringing out, and settling there- 
on, a number of Scotch families. This was the biggest sell of the 

On the 20th November, the telegraph line, via Pembina, from 
the east, was completed to this city, and on that day the following 
despatch and answer were the first messages to pass over the wires: 

"Fort Garry, Nov. 20, 1871. 
"Rigid Hon. Lord Liagar, Oaveruor-General of Canada. 

"The first telegraphic, message from the heart of the continent 
"may appropriately convey, on the part of our people, an expres- 
sion of devout thankfulness to Almighty God for the close of our 
" isolation from the lest of the world. This message announces 
"that close — as its receipt by Your Excellency will attest it. The 
" voice of Manitoba, collected this morning on the banks. of the 
" Assiniboine, will be heard, in a few hours, on the banks of the 
"Ottawa, and we may hope before the day closes that the words 
"of Your Excellency's reply, spoken at the capital of the Dominion, 
"will be listened to at Fort Garry. We may now count in hours 
" the work that used to occupy weeks. 1 congratulate Your Ex- 
cellency on the facility so afforded in the discharge of your high 
"duties, so far as they concern the Province. I know I can better 
"discharge my own, when at any moment 1 may appeal to Your 
" Lordship for advice and assistance. 

"(Signed) Adams G. Archibald." 

To the above despatch, the following reply was sent: — 
" To Lieutenant-Governor Archibald, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

"I received your message with great satisfaction. The comple- 
tion of the telegraph line to Fort Garry is an auspicious event. 
" It forms a fresh aiid most important link between the Eastern 
" Provinces and the North-West, and is a happy augurv for the 
" future, inasmuch as it gives proof of the energy with which the 
"Union — wisely effected — of Her Majesty's North American pos- 
sessions, enables progress and civilization to be advanced in dif- 
ferent, and far distant portions of the Dominion. 1 congratulate 
" the inhabitants of Manitoba on the event, and join heartily in 
"your thanksgiving. " (Signed Lisgar.'" 


Mr. H. MeDougall lias been in chaise of the telegraph ollic in 
this city from its establishment until now. 

The Dominion Land's office, Assistant Receiver-General's office 
and office of Inspector of Surveys were opened about this time in 
th j building now occupied by the Standard J'rinting Compauv. 
Mr. Gilbert McMicken was the gentleman in charge. 

Another charter for a railroad was now applied tor, viz., to build 
a railway in either wood or iron, from the Lake of the Woods to. 
Fort Garry. That rood is not in existence yet. 

An increase in the legal fraternity of the city took place at this 
time in the shape of an amalgamation under the name and style of 
Walker, Thibadeau & Howard, consisting of I). M. Walker, YV, 
B. Thibadeau, and liice M. Howard. 

On the 16th Dec, 1871, the announcement of the resignation of 
Hon. Alfred Boyd as Minister of Public Works was made, and at 
the same time the acceptance of the position by Hon. John Norquav. 
Mr. Boyd gave as one of his reasons for retiring from the Cabinet, 
his desire to make way for a representative of the English half- 
breeds in the Government. The presence of Mr. Nonniav in the 
Cabinet added strength to it, and from that day to this no Govern- 
ment formed in Manitoba has been found strong without the 
presence of Hon. Mr. Norquay in it. From his first start in 
political life John Xorquay has shown himself to be an able politician, 
a sound reasoner, and straightforward man in business. When he 
nipped Attorney-General Clarke at the commencement of the first 
parliament of Manitoba, in the matter of election petitions, he 
unmistakably showed himself to be a man Of discernment and 
ability. Mr. Clarke wished to reject the petitions of Hugh Pritellanl. 
against Dr. Bird, and Dr. S'ehultz against I). A. Smith, on account 
"f certain informalities, hut Mr. Norquay contended that they 
should be received on the -round that it was not the form but the 
substance of the petitions the House had to deal with in order to do 
.justice. Mr. Clarke, seeing that Mr. Norqnay had the sympathy 
"i the House, at once gave way, and from that day till now our 
present Premier has steadily gained ground in popular opinion, 
until to-day no man stands higher thai! he in political Manitoba. 


As our population increased so did the thirsty souls, and, there- 
fore, Messrs. Melntyre & Mclvor established the White Saloon in 
1871, and did a big and paying business. Our citizens in those 
'days were as liberal as they are now, a collection in aid of the 
•sufferers from the Chicago fire in Dec, 1871 being a proof of what 
'we say. In that list we find such sums subscribed as follows : — 

Lieut.-Gov. Archibald §25.00 

D. A. Smith 50.00 

A. G. B. Bannatyne 20.00 

G. McMicken 20.00 

Win. Mulvey 15.00, and so on. 

We may now refer to the following advertisement as something 

of a curiosity, when the present limits of the city are considered: 

" A number of valuable lots for sale. The lots are well situated 

"within the District to where the Town of Winnipeg must extend, 

"and are in every respect most eligible for building purposes. 

Alex. Logan, Point Douglas." 
To look over what was then known as Logan's farm, and note 
the fine residences which cover the property, and the numerous 
streets intersecting it, we must admit that Mayor Logan was a very 
good prophet in '71. But when we add, that a large portion of the 
farm just westward of Main Street, was innundated with water a 
portion of the year, we cannot help feeling astonished at the won- 
derful improvement of the city in drainage, street-making, &c, 
within the last few years. 

The charter fever, about this time, was again running high ; for 
'over the signature of John F. Bain, solicitor for the applicants, we 
find the Central Railway Company, of Manitoba, the Xorth- West- 
ern Railway Company of Manitoba, and the North-West Company, 
signifying their intention to sue the Parliament of Canada for the 
customary grace. These schemes died in parturition. The Bench- 
er's Law Society of Manitoba, fared better, ami with the following 
local talent, was ushered into existence, early in this year : Presi- 
dent, H. J. Clarke, Q.O., Attorney-General; Treasurer, D. M. Wal- 
ker ; Secretary, W. P>. Thibadeau ; Chairman Board of Ex., John 
F. Bain; Examiners, Hon. J. Royal, Jos. Dubuc, D. M. Walker, 
W. B. Thibadeau. 


John G. Geddes, towards the end of Dec, opened an agency of 
the Edinburgh Life Assurance Company. On the 14th Dec Ed- 
ward Armstrong was appointed Sheriff of Manitoba, in place of 
John Sutherland, the latter having been raised to the Senate, in 
company with Hon. Marc Girard. The appointment of the Messrs. 
Sutherland and Girard as Senators, was universally approved of 
by all parties. There have been frequent attempts by those oppos- 
ed to Hon. John Nbrquay, to find fault with his having accepted 
office under the Clarke Government, but we rind, in Dec, '71, that 
lie was presented by his constituents of High Bluff with a con- 
gratulatory address, largely signed, highly approving of his 
conduct. On the evening of the 27th Dec St John's 
day, the Masonic fraternity gave a grand ball in the building 
newly erected by Bernard R. Ross. It was a most brilliant 
affair, over 300 people bring present. The decorations were 
tastefully arranged, the supper excellent. The music was fur- 
nished by the military brass band, and a number of reels were 
danced to the sound of Hackett's bag-pipes. Mr. G. B. Spencer 
was master of ceremonies, but we are unable, from want of space, 
to give the names of those present. 

In January, 187:2, Hon. Mr. Royal — the Speaker of the House, 
— and the Government became at variance with each other. It 
appears the French printing was then a bone of contention, a.- it is 
to-day, and Mr. Clarke, who happened, at that time, to be in the 
good books of Mr. Cunningham, saw tit to take the French print- 
ing from Le Met is, and give it to the Manitoban. Mr. Royal, 
naturally, felt that he was being deprived of his rights, and 
remonstrated accordingly. Mr. Cunningham took up the cudgels 
for Clarke, and pitched into Mr. Royal, but the latter was the 
same strategist that he is to-day, and, holding firm, finally manipu- 
lated matters his own way, Mr. Clarke, before the end of the 
dispute, having to give Mr. Royal a seat in the Cabinet, although, 
it must be said, much against his will. The fact was Messrs. 
Clarke and Royal were both contending for the leadership of the 
French party, and Mr. Royal had rather the best of the con- 


On the 1st January, 1872, the Manitoba Trtnle Review, pub- 
lished by Alexander Begg, made its appearance, and to it is due 
the first agitation for the incorporation of Winnipeg as a city, as 
exemplified by the following words: — 

" On the lOth of next month the Legislature will sit, and 
" it is well for iw to take into consideration, the pro- 
" priety of incorporating our town. li" we let this chance 
" slip, who knows but others more enterprising may get 
" ahead of us, and thus change the whole aspect of the place 
"in a few years. Our Province is bound to grow rapidly 
" and we must not sleep, lest others, alive to the import- 
" ance thereof, may incorporate a town just outside, or not 
"very far from our present limits. There are many benefits to be 
"derived from an Act of Incorporation ; why not, therefore, hold a 
"meeting of the older heads to discuss tin- matter freely. Ere we 
"again appear in print the chances may be lost. Let it not then 
" be said that the Trade Review neglected to caution our towns- 
" people on the subject." 

That article caused the death of the Trade Review, for Mr. Cun- 
ningham, who was the tool of a certain number of large property 
holders in the town, who feared taxation, and, therefore, opposed 
incorporation, declined to publish the Review any longer.. The 
Manitoba n in an article on the 8th of January, after ridiculing the 
idea as set forth in the Trade Review, says : — 

" Putting it in a general way the article, (the one which we 
" have already quoted from the RevievJ) says : ' that there are many 
"benefits to be derived from an act of incorporation,' will our 
"spirited contemporary just indicate a few of them ? Say half a 
"dozen or so. It's only information we want." 

Mr. Begg after a good deal of trouble succeeded in getting out a 
second number of the Trad,; Review (although every obstacle was 
put in his way by Mr. Cunningham) and replied to the above as 
follows : — 

"As we have been asked for information, however, we will here 
" uive a few of tlw benefits to be derived." 


" First. — Our corporate powers will allow us to compel everyone 
" within the limits of the town to take every necessary precaution 
" against danger by tire." 

" Second. — We will be enabled to have sidewalks on our streets, 
" the expense of which will be borne generally instead of as now, 
"by one or two individuals." 

"Third. — The limits of the town will be decided upon, whereas 
"now there is a good deal of doubt where they are, or where they 
are likely to be." 

"Fourth. — We will be enabled to have our streets laid out 
" regularly, so that in the future there will be easy access from one 
" point to another, as well as neatness in the appearance of the 
"place. Now there is no such thing, and this individual or that 
"one can plan a street on his property to answer his own individual 
"purposes, irrespective of the community at large." 

" Fifth. — We will be able to have our by-laws to regulate matters 
"generally, so as to answer the public good and not the ideas of 
" individual parties." 

"Sixth. — We will be able to secure our present town against the 
"liability of being placed on the outskirts instead of the heart of a 
" future city. Our present townspeople would feel far from satisfied 
" if they found themselves just on the limits, the other end of the 
" town being somewhere up the Assiniboine, or perhaps across it. 

" We are aware that a certain few, whose cause the Manitoban 
" may be advocating, fear that on account of the large stake they 
"have at issue they will be taxed heavily, but we may say that 
"there is no necessity for the town running into any important 
" expense at first. We can commence in a small way, and so far 
" as we can see there is no necessity for heavy taxation, even in 
" the case of the largest property holder in Winnipeg. We are not 
"obliged to have gas works, water works, an extensive police force, 
" etc., etc., at the outset." 

"We still say that we would be glad to see some of our enter- 
" prising citizens take the matter in hand." 

Always equal to the occasion, our dramatic talent, contemporary 
with the new year, came to the front, and " Box and Cox " was 


presented to a well-filled house, by the Manitoba Variety Club, at 

their opera house, which was located in the lower flat of the build- 
ing immediately below Andrew Strang's present residence, owned 
by Mr. Bernard Ross, when Messrs. Ross, Hynian & Clarke, on 
the night of January the 3rd, convulsed the audience with their 
eccentricities. With a persistent zeal, worthy of a better cause 
we rind, on the 6th of January, some restless souls applying for 
an act of incorporation for the Manitoba Mutual Fire Insurance 
Co. Like other enterprises already enumerated, it was simply a 

The second session of the First Legislature of* the Province was 
opened, with the usual formalities, on January the 16th. A guard 
of one hundred men of the Provisional Battalion, under Captain 

Fletcher, Mas in attendance, and a large number of spectators; it 
was distinguished at the outset by the agitation of a strong "want 
of confidence policy" on the part of the opposition. 

The Albino Minstrels appeared at tin- Opera Mouse during the 
month, and created a diversion, hut left the citizens with money 
enough to apply to more devout purposes, as an offertory of £25, 
collected in Holy Trinity Church, the same Week, sufficiently 
proves, ami church circles were further gladdened by the news of 
the successes of the Bishop of Rupert's Land abroad, who, about 
this time, was reported having raised upwards of £1,000 forevaugel- 
istic purposes. 

Telegraphic news in the newspapers now appeared every week, 
and the Manitoba/n for a time published daily fly-sheets with 

In February, 1872, we find a whole host of applications for 
charters. First of all, there appears one for a rail and water com- 
munication between Lake Superior and Fort Cany. Second, a 
railway from Lake Winnipeg to Pembina. Third, another line 
from Lake Winnipeg to the southern boundary of the Province. 
Fourth, a railroad from St. Vincent to Fort Carry, thence to the 
Lakes Manitoba and Winnipeg. The principal party to three of 
these prospective charters was Donald A. Smith, hut none of them 
ever came into effect. 


Although we are not supposed to chronicle doings at the Por- 
tage, still we may be allowed to mention the fact that Billy Smith, 
the pioneer flat-boatman of Winnipeg, started hi.s steam grist-mill 
at the Portage, and thus severed his connection with Winnipeg. 

A grand dinner was given to Hon. Donald A. Smith, in what 
was then known as the Opera House, but which is now " Scott's 
warehouse." The affair was a brilliant one, and attended by a 
large number of the friends of that gentleman. We have not 
space to give the names of those present, but, if we had, it would 
show that the most of them are still the friends and supporters of 
Mr. Smith. 

Notwithstanding the efforts of the Manitoba.)) , the suggestion 
made by the little Trade Revieiv was taken hold of by the people. 
Witness the following resolutions, carried on the Kith Feb., '72, at 
a meeting, of which G. I). McVicar was chairman, and W. F. Lux- 
ton, Secretary : — 

1st. — That it is desirable that the town of Winnipeg, and a por- 
tion of its vicinity should be incorporated. 

2nd. — That the northern boundary of the town should be the 
southern boundary of lot 222. 

3rd. — That the western boundary of the town should be Colony 
(or Spence's) Creek, until said creek intersects the line of . Spence's 
farm; thence, following said line to the intersection of the line of 
iMvver's farm, Red River lot, ami following 1 hover's line westward 
to the rear of the two mile limit ; thence, along the two mile limit 
hue, to the north- west angle of lot 22:5. 

•ith. — That the southern boundary of the town should be one 
half mile south of the Assinniboine river, to the rear of the two- 
mile limit. 

•'th.-That the eastern boundary of the town should be three-fourths 
"t a mile east of Red River. 

A committee was then appointed to make the necessary arrange- 
ments for placing the matter before Parliament. 

lm the 21st, however, the second session of the Manitoba 1'ar- 
lianrent was closed without anything being done about incorpora- 
tion, bitVamongst the bills assented to by His Honor Lieut. -Gov- 


enior Archibald, were the acts to incorporate the Winnipeg Water 
Works Co.!!! and the North-West Lumbering and Manufacturing 
Co., neither of which ever existed in reality. Our first waterman 
was Jas. Irwin, who plied his vocation without opposition for some 
time; if he could see the number of water-carts at present at work 
in the city, he would be astonished at the extent to which his old 
business had grown. 

George D. Xorthgraves opened a jewellery and watchmaker's 
shop, in July, '72, on Tost Office Street, in the same building with 
Wm. Chambers, gunsmith. Still another application for a charter 
now appeared, that of the Manitoba Insurance Co., which, like the 
other bubbles of the day, saw light only to hurst. 

Messrs. Jones & Simms' venture was the first opposition of any 
importance which Tims. Lusted met in the carriage business. The 
name of Brouse's Hotel was the "Royal Canadian" in 1871', just 
then built, and was looked upon — as indeed it was — as a work of 
enterprise, in the brick way, on the part of Dr. Schultz. Though 
Charley Land, in St. James, was the pioneer brick maker in the 
Province, Dr. Schultz was the first to manufacture and use brick in 
the erection of buildings. Land's bricks were principally used for 
chimneys. The house now occupied by T. A. Lundy, builder and 
undertaker, oiijPost Office Street, was in '7- a billiard hall and 
saloon kept by James F. Moore & Co. The Manitoba Brewery Co., 
after a heavy expenditure for buildings, &c, at last commenced 
brewing, but were not as successful as the shareholders desired, 
the long distance from town (Silver Heights) being found a great 
obstacle to their bus-hress. Capt. Yilliers having resigned his 
position in the police force, his Lieutenant, De Llainval, took his 
place. In the beginning of March, 1872, Alex. Begg, having 
found every obstacle put in his way by Mr. Cunningham in the 
publication of his TiW.le Review, made arrangements with Hon. 
Mr. Royal to haw a weekly paper published under the name of the 
Gazette ami Twit Revh'ir, and on the 9th of that month the first 
number appeared. In its first issue it advocated the necessity of 
a bank in Manitoba, an institution which was very much wanted 
by^our increasing business. 


About the 18th, March, 1872, Hon. M. A. Girard withdrew 
from the Ministry on account of his appointment as Senator, and 
Hon. Jos. Royal, the Speaker of the Assembly, entered the Cabinet 
as Provincial Secretary, and Hon. T. Howard became Provincial 

Mr. Murdoch, who at present is locating the line of the western 
extension C. 1*. II. from Winnipeg, and who is spoken of in con- 
nection with our proposed bridge, was here in 1872, and left Winnipeg 
on the loth March to prosecute the surveys of the railway in the 
eastern district, so that Mr. Murdoch is by no means a stranger to 
Manitoba, or her necessities and requirements. It was he who 
choose the railway crossing at Rat Portage on the Lake of the 
Woods, and the line from thence easterly to the Eagle Lake, which 
portion to-day, under the designation of "Section 42," is in rapid 
course of construction. Mr. Murdoch's attention at that time was 
confined exclusively to the railway location at. and east of L'at Portage. 

About this time we find Mr. Fonseea in the roll of a lecturer, 
his subject being the "Tropics" in which "our friend from Ja- 
maica, " succeeded in making a decided hit. He had a collection 
of curiosities from the West Indies, which he exhibited, 
omitting, however, to bring forward on that occasion his " real 
Jamaica," for which he was so famous in those days. Messrs. 
Mead & Kemp m>w established themselves, as [winters, at Point 
Douglas. A. C. S. G. Kemp ottering t<> furnish plans and de- 
signs for all branches of engineering and architectural undertak- 
ings, from a sign-board upwards. Alexander Begg also ottered, 
with his usual magnanimity, to sell through tickets to British 
Columbia via C. P. II., as soon as the line was built, as an induce- 
ment for speculators to purchase his groceries, boots ami shoes, etc., 
in Krowu's Block. 

On the ISth March, '7-, St. Patrick's Day was celebrated in the 
small chapel on Notre Dame Street, His Grace Archbishop Tache 
celebrating a grand Pontifical High Mass on that occasion. 
Speeches were delivered by Attorney-General Clarke an I Consul 
Taylor amidst great enthusiasm. 

In 1 S7— , W. J. Macaulay, intimated his intention of coming 


amongst us with a large stock of lumber and the event was hailed 
with satisfaction by those who anticipated building. Mr. 
Macaulay came from Orillia, Out., at which place he occupied the 
position of Vice- President and Treasmer of tlie Georgian Bay 

Lumbering Co., which had been started i.: Canada principally by 
Mr.- Podge, of New York, and Mr. Macaulay. As will be seen 
in the course of our narrative, W. J. Macaulay was destined to 
play an important part in the progress of the city of Winnipeg. 
In March, '7-, another application for a charter was published — 
this time for the Bank of Manitoba, but that institution has never 
to this day discounted a single note for the merchants of Winni- 
peg. It never, in fact, opened an office. We have now to chron- 
icle the return of Mr. Moberly, and party from the Rocky Moun- 
tains, where they had been exploring the route of the -C 1*. U. 
In fact, there was considerable activity in railroad matters at tin's 
time. Messrs. Jarvis (now of Macaulay & Jarvis) and James 
were out surveying the line between here and Lake Superior, and 
W. Murdoch, C. E., had been sent. out to discover, if possible, a 
more practical route than the one surveyed eastward. There Mere 
several minors of activity on the other side of the line, to connect 
this Province with the American system of railways; and on the 
other side of the Rocky Mountains, Mr. Walter Moberley — now 
of the South-Western Railway of Manitoba — was prosecuting very 
extensive surveys and explorations in connnection with the C. 1'. 
R. Altogether there was every prospect of a reign of energy 
and activity being entered upon by the Dominion Government to 
push forward our great national line of railway. 

During this time we had only three representatives at Ottawa, 
the Marquette election having been a tie between Dr. Lynch and 
Angus McKay, nothing had been done further in the matter, and 
consequently our Province was minus one representative out of 
the four we were entitled to. In the beginning of April, '72, the 
Selkirk Agricultural Society was established, with the following 
gentlemen as the first directors : Messrs. A. M. Brown, John Taylor, 
W. 15. Hall, John Fraser, Hon. M. A. Uirard, and Roger CJoulet. 
Jam; s Stewart was appointed Secretary. The Manitoba College, 


in '72, had 18 students, averaging over 18 years of age, and the 
building of their new college in Kildonan was being rapidly push- 
ed forward. We note these facts, us the institution has since be- 
come one hi which the citizens of Winnipeg have reason to feel 

proud. It is now located in Winnipeg, and is at present in a very 
flourishing condition. 

An attempt was made, in April, to establish an Kpiscopul Cathe- 
dral in Winnipeg, or, in other words, to remove the Cathedral from 
St. John's, to within the city limits; but this idea was never car- 
ried out, the Bishop being in favor of continuing where he is at 
present. About the same time, the Hrst effort to establish a ladies' 
school, in connection with the Episcopal Church, was made, and 
at a meeting held on 8th April, Veil. Archdeacon McLean in the 
chair, the following gentlemen were appointed a committee to. 
make the necessary arrangements: Messrs. A. M. Brown, Fonseca, 
Lusted, W. Cold »\ ell, and It. Howard, and at the same meeting a 
sum of fifty dollars was voted to purchase a testimonial for Miss 
Brown, now Mrs. 1>. Young, for the great interest she took in or- 
ganizing the musical services of Holy Trinity. 

In the meantime the excitement started by Mr. Begg's little 
Trade Heuitic, was kept up by the people, on the subject of incor- 
poration, while the Manitoba n continued to throw cold water on 
the scheme. As a proof of this, here is a short extract from that 
paper : — 

" In the matter of incorporation, some people seem to be getting 
"almost crazy. They seem to imagine that it only requires incor- 
"poration to make the hamlet of Winnipeg jump into a great, 
"flourishing, magnificent, commercial city. For our part, we can- 
" not see it." 

If the late Mr. Cunningham was alive to day, he ivould see it, 
and he would have to acknowledge that incorporation has been a 
very important factor in bringing this city to its present prosperous 
position, The whole cry of the Manitoba n seemed to be a dread 
of increased taxation, but, as most people must acknowledge, this 
was a narrow view of the matter. The Liberal showed itself true 
to its name, in the matter of incorporation, anil advocated it 


strongly in opposition to the Manitoban . The first 
teatablishment of the Registry Other, in Winnipeg, took 
place in William Drover's store, Major Kennedy in charge, 
in which position he has remained ever since. We have now to 
note a further enlargement of the premises of our citizen, .T. H. 
Ashdowu, in order to keep pace with his rapidly increasing trade, 
-and at the same time we hear of him taking an active interest in 
the importation of apple trees from the States to this Province. 
The Davis House was also enlarged very considerably, and refitted 
to meet the wants of the travelling public. 

The little GuzpUc timl Rec'tev' was very fond of calling 
public meetings, and it generally became so persistent that meetings 
were called to keep it ipiiet. These meetings, however, were pro- 
ductive of much good in many instances. In April, '72, the. asked for a meeting to discuss the question of shade trees on 
our streets. We cannot ivmemlier if this particular meeting was 
called, but the question of shade trees was raised and has received 
attention since, but it would have been well if our citizens had paid 
mure attention to this matter than they have done. It is not too 
late vet. It may not be known to many that in the year '72 
Winnipeg actually sported a cab — yes, a live cab and a typical 
cabby, but, unfortunately, people in those days preferred to walk, 
although we had few sidewalks, and our ambitious haekman 
languished and withdrew soon after coming out. Nearly opposite 
Arch. Wright's present store there was in 72 a tumble down bridge 
with a bent back and forlorn look ; everybody wondered how it 
hung together. It was replaced afterwards by one which went by 
the name of " Brown's Bridge,'* the Brown in this case being our 
present respected City Clerk. 

A telegram dated 11th April, '72, from Toronto, stated that the 
resignation of < rov. Archibald had been accepted, and on the strength 
of this a number of citizens who were opposed to His Honor 
Celebrated the news by bonfires, &c. • This, however, was hardly 
creditable to the parties concerned, as Gov. Archibald proved him- 
self while iu our midst to be a kind and hospitable man; and one 
Who in the administration of public affairs endeavoured to unite the 


ilillVirjut sections of the Province. Although he sacrificed his own 
iNiimliirity amongst a large class of the people here in so doing, 
there is no doubt In did much towards allaying feelings of discord 

in Manitoba. The loth Anvil was kept as a holiday and 
thanksgiving day for the recovery of the I'rincj of Wales from his 
dangerous illur>s. Illnniinatious ami bonfims took place in the 
evenin* and general rejoicings throughout the city. This took 
place on a Tuesdav, and on the following Friday ;i few people 
celebrated, as we have already mentioned, the retirement of Gov, 
Archibald from Government House. 

Englishmen in this city may be pleased to learn that, on the 
12th April, 1872, a meeting of their countrymen took place in 
Simpson'* Heading Room, on I'ost-Oilioe Street, and a St. George's 
Society organized, with the following gentlemen as officers : — 
President, Curtis J. Bird; First Vi-ce, dames H. Ashdown ; 
Second Vice, Robert Simpson ; Secretary <ni<l Treasurer, Lyster 
Haywaul; Physician, Dr. Bird; Marshal, Alfred 1>. ('. Hervey; 
Auditor*, Maurice d. G. Lourman, George I>. Northgraves ; 
Charitahle Committee, Messrs. Kay ward, King. Xorthgraves, 
Thomas and Osier: Chaplain-, Uev. Mr. l'inkhani. Some of 
these gentlemen are dead, and others have left the city. Three 
only, we think, now reside- in Winnipeg. 

Messrs. Blakely & Carpenter, about this time, sold out their ex- 
press business, the American Merchants' Union Kxpress Co. being 
the purchasers, and soon after the popular " Van " was removed 
from Winnipeg to Moorhead. But we could not do without him. 
Van was an institution of the place, and successful measures were 
planned for his " extradition." Winnipeg couldn't get on with- 
out fat, fair and forty, sleek, good-natured Van, who is always up 
to biz. Mr. A. X'. Carpenter succeeded Van. 

The firm of Mercer & Villiers, in McDennott's Row, 
added an addition to their store. John Higgins painted and 
otherwise fitted up his store, and Mr. Gingras enlarged his place 
<rtlso, and remodelled it. All improvements were made preparatory 
to the spring business of '7-!. L. II. Bently also commenced fit- 
ting np McKenny's store for his hardware business, which he 


carried on for some years, in the premises at present occupied by 
J. H. Ashdown's branch store, next to the Merchants' Hotel, cor- 
ner Main Street and Portage Avenue. We notice, at this period, 
the dissolution of Walker, Thilmudeau & Howard, — Thibaudeau 
retiring, and Walker & Howard carrying on the business. J). C. 
Kinsey also retired from the firm of Hill, Griggs & Co., and ever 
since has carried on business by himself in Winnipeg. 

In the beginning of May, 1872, the Gazette and Trade Review 
was in its element. It had no less than three public meetings 
in one week. The first one was for the purpose of petitioning 
the Dominion Government to re-consider the award for rebellion 
losses, as it was considered that injustice had been done several 
claimants for compensation. The second meeting was to petition 
for a change in the site of the Emigration Sheds, so as to place 
them nearer the centre of the town than it was proposed placing 
them. A committee, consisting of Messrs. Bannatyne, Davis and 
Begg were appointed to draft a. petition on the subject, which Mas 
done, and the documents forwarded to Ottawa. The whole fight, 
at that time was between the people of the town, and 
the Hudson's Bay Company, as it was deemed that, that 
corporation was endeavoring to get all the public buildings 
located in the vicinity of the Fort. The Dominion Government, 
however, did not comply with the wishes of the people, so far as 
the sheds were concerned. The third meeting, however, proved 
more successful in its results; it was held for the purpose of 
petitioning against the erection of the general Post Office in the 
vicinity of the Fort. The following were the gentlemen appointed 
to draft the resolution in this case : — Messrs. A. M. Brown, Stewart 
Mulvey, Alex. Begg,' Drever, Barber, Davis, Sinclair and McFadden. 
The following is the resolution : — 
To the Hon. Alex. Campbell, Postmaster General, &e.,it'C.: — 

The petition of the freeholders, householders and inhabitants of 
the Town of Winnipeg and Parish of St. John, 

That ydur petitioners, have learned with surprise and regret that 
the Dominion Government contemplate removing the general Tost 


Olfice in this town from its present site to some place on what is 
called the Hudson's Day Company's Reserve, some half or three 
quarters of a mile south of the present location, and altogether 
outside of the town. 

That the present office is in the centre of the town, and from the 
improvements going on to the north, will evidently be also near 
the centre of the prospective town, and is in every way suited to 
the public requirements. That it would be a serious injury and 
inconvenience to inhabitants of not only the town but of Point 
Douglas and' the Parish of St. John should the Post office lie re- 
moved to the proposed site, as it would necessitate the employment 
of vehicles at many seasons of the year to enable them to receive 
and deliver mail matter. That, should a change of the locality be 
deemed necessary, then your petitioners ask that it should not lie 
further south than the present office, and be upon the main street 
of the present town. "-'•' * * * * 

This petition went to show the feelings of the people on the subject 
and went far to strengthen the hands of those who afterwards 
succeeded in getting the Tost Office where it is. It is well to 
explain at this stage of our narrative that, whether the Hudson's 
Bay Company were rightfully or wrongfully accused of wishin<> to 
secure the public buildings on their property, they had as perfect a 
right to do so as the people had a right to checkmate them if 
possible. Since that time the Company have taken great pains to 
build up what is now known as the South Ward, and lately 
Mr. Brydges, on behalf of the Company, has evidenced a stron» deter* 
urination to push forward that end of the town. All this <*oes to show 
how every tiling is tending to enlarge and increase the importance of 
of Winnipeg as a city. Just consider that where the Canada Pacific 
Hotel is to-day, was believed in '72 as altogether to be outside of and 
at a distance from, the possible limits of the town. What a change 
there is to-day ? We cannot, therefore, as a matter of business 
blame the Hudson's Bay Co., but why the Mauitoban should have 
'taken up the cudgels for. this corporation, and against the wishes of 
the people, we leave our readers to conjecture. 

As the Rebellion drew the attention of the world to this Prov- 



ince, so those successive meetings, petitions, etc., of the town, on 
matters connected with the welfare of the place attracted notice 
also, and, consequently, drew the attention of capitalists and others 
to our isolated, but progressive, capital. 

A German Society was started here in 71, witli .!. G. Son- 
derman, president. George Hath, treasurer, and Edward Kuhlton 
secretary, and about the same time the Selkirk Cricket Club was 
established, with Ii. Woods, secretary, and in the way of business 
we rind Mr. In in succeeded by Harry Nichols in the water busi- 
ness. Mr. Alexander McMickcn was the first banker in Winni- 
peg, and, until the .Merchants' Bank started here, he did a 
profitable business. His bank was situated where .1. W. Taylor's 
book-bindery now is, next to the 8tatulm'd office, but he after- 
wards erected a building on Main Street, and did business there 
for some time, until the Ontario Bank came to the city and occu- 
pied it in turn. Alexander McMickcn, having leased his bank, 
then gradually retired from the business, but, during Ins time, he 
materially assisted many of our rising merchants. 

On Friday, May 10th, '7l, the first boat of the season (the Sel- 
kirk) arrived. The arrival of the first boat was then, as it is vet, 
looked upon as an event, because with it, generally, came a reviv- 
al of business, and a happy deliverance from the monotony of the 
winter months. This season the firm of Hill, Griggs & Co. hav- 
ing amalgamated with the Kittson line, a.ll the boats landed 
freight and passengers at Fort Carry, much to the annoyance of 
the merchants. We say all the boats, as the line now consisted 
of the Selkirk, International and Dakota, the latter built dur- 
ing the winter. The stages now commenced running a daily line, 
which was a great boon, and a line of stages was also put upon 
the road between the Stone Fort and Fort Garry. Fare, one 
way, SI. 7">. Andrew Strang was the first piano agent in Winni- 
peg. He came to Red [Iliver as assistant to Alexander Be«'g in 
the commission business, and was afterwards employed by Ban- 
natyne & Begg, as their book-keeper and general manager, which 
latter position, with A. Bannatyne, he holds to-day, so that he did 


not depend on selling pianos for a living. Alexander Begg was the 
first man, however, to introduce sewing machines into the country. 

In 1ST-!, we have to record a strange importation for a L'rovinee 
like Manitoba, viz., 40 tons of pressed hay l>y L. 11. Beutley. ,- 

Mr. Baunatyne was one of the most considerate men towards 
immigrants in the earlier days, for when a number of them ar- 
rived here in '72, and could not procure house-room, lie threw 
open a large building in the rear of his store for their use frej of 
charge. In the latter en 1 of May, 1872, Mr. John t'reeiuau 
took up his permanent residence in Winnipeg as agent for F. E. 
Kew, of London, England. Mr. Kew had for many years acted as 
agent in Loudon for the trailers of this country, commencing, how- 
ever, in a small way, but increasing his business year by year to a 
very considerable extent, until at the time we mention he found it 
desirable to establish Mr. Freeman in Winnipeg as his permanent 
agent. Mr. Freeman had been his principal man of business for a 
long time, and was fully acquainted with all the merchants and 
traders of the country, and the varied requirements of the trade. 
Nearly all the fill's shipped to England outside of the Hudson's 
Bay Company were consigned to Mr. Kew, and in fact that gentle- 
man's name was better known and respected than almost any other 
throughout the whole North-West. As will lie seen dining the 
course of our narrative Mr. Kew's agency business was the starting 
point from which sprang the present extensive linn of Stobart, 
Eden & Co., it having been first Kew, Stobart & (Jo., ami afterwards 
Stobart & Eden. 

Mr. W. J. Macaulay arrived here in June, '72, with his wife and 
family for the purpose of making this city his home. He brought 
in with him about 2,000,000 feet of sawn timber, and had made ar- 
rangements for about 2,000,000 feet in log. We have already shown 
his connection with the lumbering interests iu Ontario, ami as soon 
as he arrived here he went to work to secure a suitable place for 
the erection of a large saw mill. He succeeded iu getting the 
location on which his mill is now situated, and ere long the 
machinery for the same arrived by boat. 

In June, '72, Messrs. Evans & Steele commenced business as 


customs and general brokers, and for some time had almost a 
monopoly of that branch. Mr. Frank Moberly having returned 
from his exploring trip to the Rocky Mountains, entered into 
partnership with John Nichol in Winnipeg, as engineers and eon- 
tractors. On the 12th June, *Z2, Mr. F. E. Cornish, from London 
Out,, arrived in Winnipeg. He afterwards played a very impor- 
tant part in the history of this city. The well at Point Douglas, 
opposite the Manitoba College, was sunk in June, '72, and was, 
considered at the time a great boon to the people of that locality. 
In the election for President of the Provincial Agricultural As- 
sociation, the same year, IX A. Smith received 97 votes; It. A. 
Davis received G2 votes; majority for Smith, 35. James Stewart 
was elected Secretary, and Ceo. Roy, Treasurer. 

On Tuesday, 25th June, 71, an address, signed by over 1,300 
settlers was presented to Governor Archibald, expressing re«ret at 
his early departure from the Province, and appreciation of the 
faithful and wise manner in whieh he had fulfilled his trust as 
Governor of Manitoba, to which Governor Archibald replied 
in a feeling manner. On Thursday, 27th June, '72, an important 
event happened at Point Douglas, in the establishment of the 
ferry at that spot. A number of citizens assembled to celebrate 
the event, and several speeches were made on the occasion, in one 
of which (delivered by Mr. W. G. Fonseca,) it was pro'phecied 
that the Railway Bridge would cross at or near the terry landing 
The speaker, moreover, stated it as his belief, that the future Pem- 
bina Railway Would nih on the east side of the lied River and 
cross at Point Douglas, Which, from present indications, there is 
every likelihood of its doing. In July, '72, C. W. Radiger suc- 
ceeded to the business of A. M. Brown & Co., Mr. Brown earrvinu 
on the brick-making business which he had established at Point 

The following list of " Provisional Directors " of the Manitoba Bank 
was made public: Donald A. Smith, lion. Jas. McKay, Robert 
Tait, Geo. Stephen, Montreal, Sir A. T. Gait, Montreal, J. H. Mc- 
Tavish, Manitoba, A, McDermott, Manitoba; and of the Manitoba 
Insurance Co.: Sir Hugh Allan, Montreak-D. A. Smith, Montreal, 


Geo. Stephen, Montreal, Hon. Jus. McKay, Manitoba, J. A. Mc- 
Tavisb, Manitoba, Hon. M, A. Girard, Manitoba. A. G. B. Banna- 
tyne, Manitoba. Mr. J. J. Hargrove was Secretary to both Com- 
panies. A goodly lot of directors, and a first class secretary, and 
yet neither companies ever saw daylight. On the loth July, ten- 
ders were called for the construction r.f Custom House, Land Office, 
and Post Office, in Winnipeg, which event caused much rejoicing 
amongst the towns-people, only they didn't want them on the 
H. B. Co. 'a reserve. Messrs. Moore & Dickinson opened the 
"Pride of the West," in July, '72, as a Billiard Hall, with b' tables 
and a tine liar; and as a mark of energy on the part of the proprie- 
tors, it is recorded that they laid a side- walk, at their own expense, 
from Main Street to their doorway. Mr. Begg, about this time, 
started the first soda-water factory in Manitoba, which he carried 
on successfully for some time, until the failure of James 
Austin, in Montreal, seriously involved him, when his factory 
had to go by the board, and Mr. Samuel West became the pro- 
prietor. Mr. • F. E. Cornish had, about this time, several legal 
fights with Attorney-General Clarke, and it was generally admit- 
ted that the latter had, at last, met his match. In the case of 
" Smith and Galbraith," there was considerable excitement, a large 
body of men having gathered together on the' occasion to watch 
tlie case. Mr. Clarke prosecuted, and Mr. Cornish defended, and 
the latter won the case, and this was the commencement of a run 
of popularity enjoyed by Mr. Cornish for a long time. 

The following is a list of some of the building improvements 
in '72 : — 

Chief-Justice Wood's residence, in course of erection by Dr. 
Schultz ; by Messrs. Dunlop, Mulvey, Butcher, Davis and Johnston 
in the neighborhood of Xotre Dame Street ; by W. li. Dick, the saw- 
mill of Dick & Banning near the river. 

W. J. Macaulay & Co., saw-mill, boarding-house for men, and 
offices near foot of Xotre Dame Street. 

The large steamboat warehouse, near Fort Garry, by the Hud- 
son's Bay Co. — 



Messrs. Bentley & Hay ward added to their premises, the first, 
on the corner of Portage Avenue and Main Street, the latter on 
Notre Dame Street, where Mrs. Finney is at present. Mclvor & 
Mclntyre erected a building near where the Thistle store now 
stands. Mr. John Higgins built the house immediately in rear of 
Young & Jackson's store, in which he lived afterwards for some 

Messrs. Green, Cunningham., and Alexander Logan, erected 
buildings on the main road between the town and Point Douglas. 
Mr. Duncan Sinclair finished his residence, in which Rev. A. 
Fortin is living at present, on the bank of the Red River. 

Mr. Bannatyne added a wing to the fine residence he still 

Mr. W. G. Fonseca built what is now the Manitoba College, at 
Point Douglas. 

The following parties also erected buildings at Point Douglas, 
in fact the building fever was then principally in that direction :— 
Messrs. J. Sutherland, R. Monroe, D. N. Campbell, Watson, 
John Freeman, James Dawson, Campbell ami Logan, C. Thomas, 
Joseph Devlin and McLean. Mr. Eel. Romain built his residence, 
as did also Mr. Barton. Messrs. James Turner & Co., of Ham- 
ilton, erected the large brick building (the most of the material 
for which was imported) in which the firm are at present carry- 
ing on a wholesale grocery trade. Mr. Powis was sent from 
Hamilton to superintend this building, which, even at the present 
day, is an ornament to the city. 

About this time Winnipeg received a visit from the celebrated 
Dr. Punshon, from England, who preached on several occasions to 
crowded congregations. H. S. Donaldson, with his usual enter- 
prise, started a first class circulating library, which was considered 
a great boon to the public. On the 27th July, '72, the great H. B. 
C. auction sale of the city lots took place, Mr. L. Hayward acting 
as auctioneer, and some idea may be had of the market value of 
lots at that time by the following list of prices obtained :— Mr. 
Bannatyne bought the lot on which the Canada Pacific stands for 
$1,000;. the next lot sold for $1,750, and some others on Main 


Street went as high as 82,000, the average being about 81,500 per 
lot. These lots had a frontage of 50 feet and a depth of 120 feet. 
On August 8th, '72, a review of the troops in Winnipeg took 
place when they were inspected by Adjutant-General Col. R. Koss. 
A sham battle was the feature of the proceedings, in which our 
volunteers appeared to advantage. About the same time the 
Manitoba Rifle Association was funned with the following gentle- 
men as officers: — Patron, His Excellency the Lieut. Governor; 
Vice-Patron, D. A. Smith ; President, Major Irvine (now in 
the Montreal police) ; 1st Vice', G. B. Spencer, Esq. ; 2nd Vice, 
Major Peebles ; Secretary, Major W. N. Kennedy ; Treasurer, 
Capt. Gagnier ; Executive Committee, Captain Schultz, Hon. Thos. 
Howard, Capt. Plainval, Capt. Camithers, Dr. Bird, Dr. Hay. 

The grasshoppers appeared in August, '72, but too late to do any 
serious damage to the crops. 

Bishop & Shelton in August, '72, opened the pioneer furniture 
factory on Main Street, where they remained for a few months.. 
They then removed to the upper flat of Dick & Banning's mill, 
where they carried on their work shops till they established their- 
business on Xotre Dame Street. This was the commencement of 
a manufacture which since then has become a very important one in 
Winnipeg. Messrs. Bishop & Shelton were steady, hard working 
young men, and as proof of their industry can boast to-day of an 
extensive establishment. It will be in order to make further 
reference to them later on. 

Dr. Turver, whom we have already mentioned having been in 
partnership with Dr. Schultz, retired from the partnership in August, 
'72. We omitted to mention that on the completion of Brown's 
Bridge (now no more) opposite Archibald Wright's present stand, 
the townspeople celebrated the event by a display of fireworks in 
the evening. 

Here is a statement of the imports into Winnipeg, during the 
year ending June, '72 : — 

Great Britain $652,016 

United States 32,305 

West Indies 69 

France 14,184 


Holland 1,054 

Spain 4,207 

Portugal 211 

Germany '. 1,742 

Child 4,934 

Canada 412,104 

Exports, chiefly furs, for the same length of time,, §85,541. 
Mr. F. E. Cornish and W. 15. Thibadeaw entered into partner- 
ship in August, '72. On Tuesday, the KUh August, '72, Hon. 
Alex. Morris arrived in Winnipeg, as Chief Justice of Manitoba. 
He was accompanied by Miss Morris. Mr. Morris was sworn in on 
Wednesday, and immediately entered upon the discharge of his 
responsible duties. 

About this time, the idea of bridging the Assiniboine, at Fort 
Garry, was mooted, and Messrs. Moberly & Niehol prepared plans, 
but the scheme was never carried out. The Opera House having 
come to an end, Messrs. Coldwell & Cunningham leased the pre- 
mises, and fitted them up for their printing establishment. A large 
number of the friends of the firm congregated together in the new 
Manitoba,)), office, and a jolly house-warming was the result. 
During the festivities, we rind our friend, W. F. Luxton, of the 
Globe, congratulating the proprietors of the paper, in a well timed 
speech, while he was probably chuckling over the fact that in a few 
months, he intended to have as good a printing office himself. 
That the creation of the Free Press was at that time being hatched 
in the fertile brain of Mr. Luxton, there can be little doubt, for he 
soon after resigned his position as school teacher, in Winnipeg, and 
took a trip to Canada, for the purpose of purchasing the plant and 
material for his proposed paper. 

Messrs. Robt. Tait, R. A. Davis, and Hon. Jas. McKay adver- 
tised for tenders for the construction of the Canada Pacific Hotel 
during the latter end of August, '72. The immigrant shed was 
finished the latter end of August, same year, and since then has 
done good service. 

At this time the banks of the river, opposite the city, usually 
presented a lively appearance during the summer months, on ac- 


count of the numerous flat-boatmen who carried on a trade with 
the housekeepers and others of the town. Indeed the river had 
a very celestial sort of appearance from the fact of the number of 
floating stores, which, Chinese-like, did business at the levee, and 
to such an extent was this system carried on, that the merchants 
complained seriously, and not without cause, for it was unfair 
to the resident business men, that parties, flat-boating their goods 
from Moorhead to Winnipeg, could, without investing a dollar of 
their money in the city, carry on a brisk retail trade with our 
towns-people — the fiat-boats being simply floating stores, and 
broken up and sold for lumber as sunn as their cargoes were 
disposed of. The very fact j)f our being unable to put a stop 
to these wandering traders, who peddled to the detriment of the 
established merchants, was a proof of the necessity of incor- 

In September, the Dominion elections were in full blast in this 
Province. Donald A. Smith, being opposed by Mr. Wilson (of 
the firm of Wilson & Hyman) in Selkirk ; Dr. Schnltz, by H. G. 
G. Hay, in Lisgar; Mr. Cunningham, by John Norquay, in Mar- 
quette, and Sir George Cartier, unopposed, in I'rovencher. 
The elections resulted in the election of Donald A. Smith, Dr. 
Schultz, P. Cunningham ami Sir George E. Cartier. In Winni- 
peg a riot took place at the close of the polls, during which the 
offices of the Manitoba/a, Gazette and Le Metis (then published 
in this city) were sacked. There was, consequently, an almost 
univeisal suspension of the newspapers in the Province. We have 
no wish to dwell on this scene of disorder and destruction, it 
was alike discreditable and unfortunate for the town, but it is a 
subject of congratulation that, since that time, our city has been 
remarkably free of any such misfortunes. 



Temporary Extinguishment — Exit Gov. Archibald — Gov. Monuis to the 
Rescue — Third Expedition — St. Paul and Pacific 11. R. — Puisne 
Judges — J. M. Macdonnell — Daily Free Press — Good Templars— 
Trottoirs— Census — Prices Current — MennonitEs — Lindsay Russell 
Presbyterian Church — Footpads — Merchant's Bank — Firk — Epizootic 
— Hospital — 1). M. Walker— A Close Shave — Fred. McKenzie — Incor- 
poration — Nor' West Council — Skdley Blanch ard — Outlawed — City 
Limits — Board of Trade — Mechanics' Institute — Can. Pac. Ry. Co. — 
Photographic — Spasms— Street Lamps — Unconstitutional By-Laws— 
Nomenclature— Vox,Populi — Outrage on Dr. Bird—Patience in Tri- 

The riots left us with only the Liberal newspaper, tlieManitoban, 
Gazette and Le Metis were obliged to import new plant and material 
to replace that which was destroyed. Messrs. E. Brokovski and 
G. F. Carruthers had succeeded Alex. Begg in the proprietorship 
of the Gazette, and it was, therefore, a somewhat hard beginning 
for them to have their ottice destroyed just at the commencement 
of their career as newspaper men in Manitoba. 

In the early part of October, Lieut. Governor Archibald left the 
Province, ostensibly for the purpose <>f paying a visit east, but those 
who were in the secret knew he would not return. Such, indeed, 
turned out to be the case 4 , and Chief Justice Morris, who whs sworn 
in pro tem, finally received the appointment as Lieut. Governor of 
Manitoba in the early part of December, '72. On the 23rd October 
the third expedition of volunteers arrived in Winnipeg, and, unlike 
their predecessors, were dressed in scarlet. About this time the 
spur line from Glyndon to the crossing of lied Lake River was 
completed, which allowed the boats to load their cargo direct from 
the cars, instead of having it hauled a long distance from More- 
head to Grand Forks during a portion of the summer. 

Mr. Louis Betonrney and Mr. McKeaghney were appointed 
puisne judges by the Court of Queen's Bench, Manitoba, and we 
also have to note the arrival of J. M. Macdonnell, solicitor, who 
opened an office in the corner now occupied by the North West 
Telegraph Co. Mr. Macdonnell by perseverance and strict attention 


to his profession has built for himself the reputation of being one 
of our first lawyers. We remember, however, the time when Mr. 
Maedonnell used to sit in his office with his feet elevated Yankee 
fashion on his table patiently waiting for clients to turn up. That 
his patience has been well rewarded Winnipeg well knows. 

On the 9th November, the Manitoba Free Press, a new weekly 
literary creation, made its salutatory bow, and whs ushered into 
existence witli an advance specimen number. Mr. John Kenny 
was the proprietor, Mr. W. F. Luxton, the editor, the same com- 
bination of managing ability that, after a successful run of seven 
years, still controls its destinies. With the Reform banner nailed 
to the mast, it sailed into the somewhat turbid seas of political 
Manitoba an uncompromising " advocate of Reform in politics, and 
liberality in all things ; " and, with imported plant, talent, and long 
experience, promised early, to take the front place in the ranks of 
the newspaper literature of the country, 

On the 15th November, the Gazette once more appeared in a 
new dress, and the Manitobau some time later in December. We 
were again, therefore, with our full complement of " organs," Le 
Metis having also made a fresh start, its establishment being re- 
moved to St. Boniface. 

Winnipeg Temple, No 1, I. O. G. T., was also resuscitated in 
November, and its regular lodge meetings were held,V very Monday 
evening, in the Winnipeg Public School House. The absence of 
side-walks was, at this time, a source of sore complaint ; some of 
our more enterprising citizens it is true, with distinguishable libe- 
ality, came partially to the rescue, but the horrible sloughs of des- 
pair that were wont to exist where plank- walk connection was 
broken, was enough to stagger the boldest of our pedestrians. The 
want of these trottoirs was the dernier resort of the hard-up repor- 
ter, for hardly a day passed in November without some allusion 
being made to the vasty depths of mud on Main Street, and " in- 
corporation ** was consequently the chronic wail of our resident 
foot-pads. Messrs. Sinclair (of the Queen'.s), Hayward, Wilson & 
Hyman, 1». Devlin, Dr. Sehultz, Hill, Griggs, & Co., Dr Turver, 
and others combined, however, to erect a walk from Dr. O'Donnell's 
corner to Sehultz Street, whilst W. rainier Clarke and H. S. Don- 


aldson connected their places of business with a similar luxury. 
These bits of comfort, however, only served to magnify the awful- 
ness of the unbridged stretches, through mere contrast. 

Early in this month a careful enumeration of the place gave a 
population of 1,467, or allowing for omissions, of about 1,500. 
Of these 1,407, ten hundred and nineteen were males, and four 
hundred and forty-eight females. The population in the fall of '70 
was about three hundred, and in '71 seven hundred, which at the 
rate of increase named, augured well for the rapid and continuous 
growth of our population, as demonstrated by our last census. 

It may be interesting to note about this time the prices that 
were obtained in Winnipeg for farm produce. Wheat sold at SI. 25, 
oats, SI; barley, 81.10; potatoes, 02 cts. ; onions, S2 ; carrots, 

75 cents ; turnips, 50 cents ; beets, 75 cents ; hay, §7 to 88 per ton ; 
butter, 30 cents ; beef, 121 cents; lamb, 12J, cents; veal, 20 cents ; 
pork, 20 cents ; fresh, tish, 5 cents per 11). ; whilst the average rate 
of wages paid may be quoted as follows: carpenters. 83.50 ; brick- 
layers and masons, S4 : painters, 83.50 ; labourers, 82.50. It was 
during this month that Mr. Warkentin, a gentleman from Southern 
Russia, in company with a Mr. Schauta, of Perlin, Ontario, visited 
the Province by request of the Federal Government^ for the purpose 
of determining the suitability of Manitoba as a field for a Men- 
nonite emigration. These gentlemen, t< igether with Messrs. Wagner, 
P. L. 8., and Hart, Deputy Inspector of Surveys, made a tour of 
the Province. Our numerous Mennonite population of to-day is 
the direct result of those observations. 

In November Oilbert McMicken resigned his position as Do- 
minion Land Agent, and was succeeded shortly afterwards by 
Lindsay Russell. Late in the autumn the Presbyterian Church, 
in order to keep pace with the rapid growth of the town, had to be 
enlarged. An addition of eighteen feet was found to be necessary, 
and from being a mission church the congregation resolved upon 
imposing upon themselves the burden of its support, and engaged 
to pay for a minister themselves, with a yearly stipend of two 
thousand dollars. 

Progress was not just then confined solely to religious circles, for 
the pockets of H. Gravely about that time were depleted by a very 


progressive gentleman in the " road-agent" business, to the tune of 
§200, whilst Philip Hussey, a well known character in police 
circles, and better remembered as " Shorty," intelligently continued 
to develope the detective talents of our police. 

In the early part of December, Mr. W. F. Hymau met with a 
serious accident, which necessitated having his right arm ampu- 
tated above the wrist. All who were here at the time, will remem- 
the kindness of the Sisters of St. Boniface Hospital in caring for 
the wounded man. 

J. H. Ashdowu, at this time, had an establishment at the Por- 
tage, which firm was changed, in December, to Ashdowu & Mc- 

On the 1st October, '7- the Merchant's Dank gave notice that it 
intended shortly to establish an agency in Winnipeg, under the 
management of Duncan McArthur ; which it did about the 14th 
December, and Mr. McArthur has ever since remained in charge 
of the institution here. He has succeeded in building up one of 
the most lucrative agencies of this corporation; as, not long since, 
the Winnipeg branch Mas rated as the- third-best agency of the 
Merchant's Bank in the Dominion, Mr. McArthur fitted up an 
office in a building on Main Street, near where Dufferin Hall 
stands to-day, where he remained until he removed into the present 
handsome premises, corner Post Office and Main Streets. The fire 
tiend, on the 7th Dec, '72 destroyed an old landmark of the time 
in the shape of McDermott's Mill, leased by Chisholm & P.ubar, 
and which was situated just below what is now known as the Flats. 
During the winter of '72 and '73 the epizootic appeared amongst 
the horses in the Province, and one of the results was a complete 
stoppage of the stage line, which was a great inconvenience to the 
travelling public, as the stage company were obliged to carry the 
mails by dog train. The necessity for a General Hospital was 
much felt at this time, and consequently a meeting to consider the 
subject was called, on Wednesday, the 18th Dec. Governor Mor- 
ris was sworn in on the 1'lst Dec, '72. 

One of the best investments in real estate ever made in this 
city, was concluded in Dec, by Gov. Morris purchasing about 25 
acres of the Drever estate for fifteen thousand dollars. The pro-. 


perty is now worrh probably ten times the value paid for it. D. 
M. Walker having dissolved partnership with Bice M. Howard, en- 
tered into partnership, in Dee., with U. T. Huggard, now inspector 
of weights and measures in this city. 

Here is the notice of the first real live barber, who located in 
Winnipeg : " Barber Shop — W. Wood Fairbanks, the distinguished 
"Tonsorial Artist from New York, has opened a first-class shop in 
" the Davis Hotel, Winnipeg. X. B. Special attention paid to 
"honing razors." 

Mr.Fred. MeKenzie now comes to the front as a partner of At- 
torney-General Clarke, under the style of Clarke & Mclvenzie. 
The Eureka, now the California House, was established early in 
'73, Phil. Heiminck being the proprietor. 

Our friend Jas. Stewart having been in partnership with Dr. 
O'Donnell until Nov., "12, the firm was dissolved, and each went 
his own individual way. The subject of incorporation continued 
to interest the people, and on the 27th December there was another 
mass meeting to consider it. The principal motion carried on that 
occasion was as follows : — " That in the opinion of this meeting an 
" Act of Incorporation for Winnipeg is necessary," and the next 
motion was, "That a committee be appointed to draft a bill to 
" submit to another meeting," to which an amendment was offered 
-by Mr. P. E. Cornish, namely : — "That this meeting, through the 
" Chairman and Secretary, petition the Parliament to incorporate the 
" town of Winnipeg." The original motion carried. Alex. Mc- 
Arthur was chairman, ami Major Kennedy secretary of this meeting. 
The want of a public hall being much felt at this time, W. G. 
Fonseca fitted up the lower part of the building at present used by 
the Manitoba College, and called it Point 1 >onglas Hall. 

The following gentlemen were now appointed by the Dominion 
Government as members of the North West Council, having 
jurisdiction outside the limits of the Province : — Messrs. M. A. 
Girard, Donald A. Smith, H. J. Clarke, Patrice Breland, Alfred 
Boyd, Dr. Schultz, Joseph Dubuc, A. G. B. Bannatyne, W. Eraser, 
Robert Hamilton, and W. J. Christie. Mr. Lindsay Russell was 
appointed early in January, '73, Dominion Lands Agent in place of 
Gilbert McMicken. The first attempt at a general hospital was 


made in January, '73, by leasing rooms in Dr. Schultz's Block, 
Notre Dame Street, Mr. Nesbitt being the first steward appointed. 
And about now we find Sedley Blanchard, practising as a barrister, 
at the same time, tilling the honorable position of Clerk of the Ex- 
ecutive Council. 

One Letendre, who was arrested, tried, found guilty, and sentenced 
to be hanged, for participation in the Fenian invasion, was pardoned 
in January, and exiled from the country for 20 years. 

The bill of incorporation having been drafted, another mass 
meeting took place on 5th February, '73. The draft provided for 
the incorporation eu bloc without the customary division into 
wards, and this idea was strongly supported by F. E. Cornish. 
Thos. Lusted, however, spoke up in favor of the ward system, and 
at the same time suggested four wards, with three councillors each. 
Mr. Lusted's view carried, and the following limits were decided 
upon : — South Ward, from the southerly and easterly limits, to the 
line between the properties of the Hudson's Bay Company 
and Dr. Schultz's, as far as Main or Garry Street ; thence jogging 
north to the lied Saloon, thence west, on the Drever McDermott 
line. North Ward. — From the northern limits to the Logan-Ross 
line. West Ward. — All the territory between the Logan-Ross and 
Drever-McDermott lines, and west of Main or Carry Street. East 
Ward. — All the territory between the Logan-Ross and Hudson's 
Bay, Co.-Schultz lines, east of Main or Carry street. 

The third session of the first Parliament of Manitoba was opened 
Wednesday, Feb. 5th, '73, by Lieut.Governor Morris, who received 
every demonstration of joy and respect on that occasion. Dr. J. 
C. Bird was elected Speaker. 

About this time, certain parties petitioned against the Hospital 
being placed in the centre of the town, and in consequence it was 
removed to a building in the neighborhood of Clarke & McClure's 
lumber yard, on the banks of the lied River. 

A meeting of some of the townspeople took place in Feb., for 
the formation of a Board of Trade, and the first institution of the 
kind was formed. Several of the prominent men in the town, how- 
ever, were not invited to attend the first meeting, and so a second 
one was called, the consequence being that a split occurred, and 



Winnipeg, even before it was incorporated, found itself with two 
distinct Boards of Trade ; or, more correctly speaking, two opposi- 
tion parties on the Board of Trade question. It may 'be a matter 
of curiosity to note the names of the individuals composing these two 
parties : 


Dr. Schultz, 
G. F. McMicken, 
A. McMicken, 
, C W. Radiger, 
L. R. Bentley, 
I). Young, 
P. Clarke, 
8. Mulvey, 
T. Lusted, 
G. Mo Vicar, 
G. F. Carruthers, 
R, A. Davis, 
A. E. Wilson. 
D. Sinclair, 
M. Davis, 
Arch. Wright, 
L. Hay ward, 

— Jackson, 

— Villiers, 
J. Freeman, 

1 >r. O'Donnell, 
H. S. 1 )onaldsou, 
J. H. Ashdown, 
H. J. Marshall, 
G. I). Xorthgraves, 
W. Chambers, 
Alex. Begg, 
F. C. Mercer, 
J. McViear, 


A. McDermott, 
A. Boyd, 
J. H. McTavisb, 
S. Monchamps, 
W. Coldwell, 
J. G. Sonderman, 
1 >r. Bird, 
— Dunstan, 

* Capt. Kennedy, 
W. J. Maeaulay, 

* E. H. G. G. Hay, 

* R. Tait, 

A. G. B. Bannatyne, 
J. McGregor, 

* T. Bunn, 

* Hon. J. Royal, 
J. Ballsillie, 
W. Drever, 

R. Cunuiugliam, 

* — Paitchardj * 
W. H. Lynn, 

A. M. Brown, 

* Hon. T. Howard, 
*C. Inkster, 

* B Morgan, 
*.Tos. Lemay, 

— Gingras, 

* P. B. Young, 

* G. Fisher. 

TheM- eet.tlcmen were not, at the time engaged in business in Winnipeg. Tt will there- 
fore be Been that it was a ease of a house divided within itself, ami the tir-t promoters of the 
Hoard of Trade carried the day. ; u least numerically speak i up. These rival Hoards of Trade 
caused considerable ill-feeling for a time amomrst our citizens, b:it it sotn died out. 


W. F. Luxton, 

T. Taylor, 
W. Hynian, 

— Hughes, 

— Bulling, 

— Widdupp, 

— Bishop, 

— Shelton, 
R. Patterson, 
E. Brokovski, 
B. R. Boss, 

W. J. Fonseea. 
E. L. Barber. 

An attempt was made, in March, 73 to form a Mechanics' As- 
sociation, but it never came to a head. 

The Canadian Pacific Railway Company, capital 810,000,000, 
advertised^their shares, slOO each, through Mr. J). MeArthur, in 
Feb,, 73, and a few were taken up, if we remember aright, by A. 
McDermott, sen., and others. One can buy them cheap at the 
present day. 

The first photographer inWimiipeg was RyderLarsen who is at pre- 
sent an exile from this Province. Mr. Penrose succeeded Larsen, and 
has carried on business successfully ever since. T. II. Parr, our 
City Engineer, commenced his profession in this city in the latter 
end of 72. The Winnipeg Water Works Co. made a spasmodic 
effort early in 73, and spoke of establishing their engine house 
some three-quarters of a mile up the Assiniboine, westward from 
its junction with the Bed Paver, but we still have to use the old 
fangled system of water carts. We can't stand it, however; much 
longer. The first street lamp ever erected in Winnipeg was placed 
by B. A. Davis, then proprietor of the Davis House, in front of his 
hotel on Main Street. 

Xow conies the exciting phase in the history of the incorporation 
of this city. It appears that in considering the bill, the Legislative 
Council had made some amendments in regard to the license money 
which the Speaker of the Assembly, Dr. Bird, ruled was unconsti- 
tutional, inasmuch as they affected the revenue of the Province, 


He, therefore, ruled the hill out of order, and the result was, 
incorporation was lost for that year, and Dr. Bird became very 
unpopular in consequence. Before this happened, however, and 
while the bill was going through the Assembly, it was so altered 
and amended that the framers could hardly recognise their own 
offspring, and this caused a feeling of considerable irritation and 
discontent amongst the people. An attempt was made in the 
House to alter the name of the place first to " Garry," then to 
" Selkirk," but neither of these amendments earned, and Winnipeg 
was finally resolved upon. An indignation mass meeting was 
called of the townspeople in the meantime, of which Major Kennedy 
was chairman, and Alex. Begg secretary, and it was resolved at it 
to send a deputation to Parliament to remonstrate. E. A. Davis 
made the motion as follows : — " That Messrs. Cornish, G. McMicken, 
" Villiers, Wilson, Luxton, and himself be a committee to represent 
" to the House the dissatisfaction of the inhabitants of Winnipeg 
" upon the course adopted by the Legislature regarding incorpora- 
" tion." This deputation interviewed Parliament and for a time it 
was thought that justice would be done in the premises, and 
another mass meeting was called to hear the decision of the Legis- 
lature, which meeting, however, quietly dispersed on being informed 
that the prorogation of the House would be delayed, in order to allow 
the incorporation bill to pass its final stages. The next thing the 
people heard was the fact that the bill had been thrown out 

That evening Hon. Dr. Bird, the Speaker of the Assembly, was 
decoyed from his residence on the pretence of being called to see a 
patient, and when near Point Douglas he was taken forcibly from 
his cutter, and a pail of hot tar thrown over his face, head and 
shoulders. This act caused much indignation amongst the towns- 
people, as it reflected on every respectable man in Winnipeg 
concerned in the incorporation movement, yet the perpetrators of 
the outrage were never discovered, although SI, 000 reward was 
offered for their apprehension. Thus ended for the time being the 
hope of incorporation which the people of Winnipeg for some time 
had been indulging in. An attempt was afterwards made to incor- 
porate under the Municipal Act, but that finally fell through from 



*ome informality caused by the delinquency of the Government in 
uot publishing the notice in the Official Gazette as required by law, 
Keally the people seemed to have good reason to believe, that the 
Clarke Government was working into the hands of the H. B. Co., 
which, on account of its dread of taxation, was hostile to the move- 
ment of incorporation. Thus the people had to wait and possess 
still further their restless souls in patience. 



■Dick and Basking — " Lord Gordon "—Game— Me. Morels' Property— H. S. 
Donaldson- k Beo,— J. H. Ashdown & Co.— John Higgins— Dr. Jackes 
Col. Peovenchek— Rival Boards of Trade— Conservative Demon- 
strations— Dentin iky— J. McLenaghes — " Poor Pillicoddy "—Sher- 
iff Inkster's Escape— The " Noi:* Wester"— A Brass Band— McAr- 
tjiuii & Co.— Macaulay's Mill— Inland Revenue— The Prince Ru- 
pert—The Chief Commissioner — The Fourth Estate— Ice — Profitable 
Lots — Government House— Indian Orgies— Abduction of Lord Gor- 
don — BiticK Veneer— A Big Push— David Young — Gkrrie & Co.— The 
Gazette — The Levee— Screw Steamer— " Send it up to the House" 
Groggy — Imports— Base-Bali, — Bridge Soundings — A Red River Boot 
Black — The Alpha — Singular Administration of Justice — Grack 
Church Organ — Archibald Wright— Lepink — Donald Codd— Cronn 
J. McGregor — Bujldino Operation; — Snydki: & Anderson— Hon. Thos. 
Howard's House— D. Scott cv C.— <;. I). Northgraves & W. Cham- 
bers — Kobeeth & Sinci.aii: — Sash k Door Factory — Bishop & Shel- 
ton— jStobart k Eden— Court House— Point Douglas— Wm. Wellband 
Incorporation of City of Winnipeg— Would-be Aldermen — I. 0. O.F. 
S.' Duffin — Davis House— Si i; John's temporary Eclipse — Agitated 

Messrs. Pick & Banning, when they commenced milling opera- 
tions here, worked their Waterous saw mill in the open air, but 
early in 73, they built a two-storey building, the lower flat beino 1 
used for sawing and planing, and the upper for the manufacture of 
■fanning-mills. Messss, Bain & Blanehard formed a partnership in 
March, 73, and the firm now stands one of the highest in the legal 
profession. The Winnipeg Carriage Works (E. Sims, proprietor,) 
were burned down in March, 73. 

" Lord Gordon," about this time paid Manitoba a visit, making 
Winnipeg his head quarters. He made a sensation and became 
quite a sportsman; for in March, 73, we hear of his being out at 
Brokenhead River, shouting pheasants, and bagging fifteen hundred 
of the birds. Lieut.-Governor Moms held an auction sale of his 
town property, and sold a large number of lots, prices varying from 
$500 to S40; the total sale amounting to 813,000. As he only 
paid $15,000 for the whole property, and received §13,000 for a 
small portion of it, it can be seen that he made rather a good bar- 


gain, lu the beginning of March, H. S. Donaldson admitted his 
brother, J. N. Donaldson to lie a partner in his concern, and the 
firm has been H. S. Donaldson & Bros, from that day to this. 

James Donaldson, by his strict business habits and energy, has 
done much in assisting his brother to build up their now magnifi- 
cent business. In April, '73, Jas. H. Ashdown took his father 
into partnership, and the firm became Jas. H. Ashdown & Co. At 
this time the Bed River ferry was situated at the mouth of the 
Assinibome, and a movement was made by some of the towns- 
people to have it removed to its present location. 

Early in the spring of '73 John Higgins erected the store which 
is now occupied by liobson a: Co.,. and when completed it was con- 
sidered one of the finest buildings in Winnipeg at that time. Dr. 
Jackes removed from the Portage to this city in April, '73, and 
commenced a practice which very soon developed into one of the 
largest in Winnipeg. The second street lamp in the town was 
erected opposite the lied Saloon by (Josgrove & Lennon early in '73. 
Mr. James H. Emslie opened his office in April, '73, as a customs 
broker, which business he has carried on successfully ever since. 
Mr. J. N. Frovencher was appointed about this time Indian Com- 
missioner of the North West vice Mr. Simpson, resigned. 

To return to the Board of Trade question, we find that the one 
which was formed in opposition to the first, applied and obtained a 
charter from the Local Legislature whilst the original Board sought 
incorporation from the Dominion Parliament. Neither of these 
Boards ever transacted any business of importance. Early in 
April, '73, on the news of the defeat of Sir John A. Macdoinild's 
Government, a bonfire was lit opposite the "Davis House," and a 
great demonstration took place. There was howling and scuttling, 
groans and cheers in plenty, but today some of the very men who 
then hooted at the downfall of Sir John are loud in sounding his 
praises. Sic vita est ! The lirst tine orthodox sausages made 
in Winnipeg, were manufactured by Mourneau & Eocan, the latter 
named citizen — now of Johnson, Itocan & Co. — is, therefore, 
the pioneer sausage-maker of the city. A. G. B. Bannatyne com- 
menced to keep pace with the times by adorning the front of hi3 

store with large show windows. His store then was the China 


Hall of Stobart, Kdeii & Co. of the present day. Mr. W. J. Alio way 
about this time retired from the veterinary profession, and opened 
up a tobacco shop near where the Red Saloon is at present. Our 
first dentist in Winnipeg was Dr. Down, but lie never gave much 
attention to his profession in this country ; the second tooth-puller 
was a Mr. J. W. Bastow. Mr. James MeLenaglien, who for .several 
years had been a clerk with the Hudson's Bay Co., withdrew in '73 
from that service and made arrangements for starting business on 
his own account, and his first step was to build the fine store in 
which he still carries on business. • 

Capt. Scott, our member, although probably nobody is aware of 
the fact, is one of the finest dramatic performers in the Nor' West. 
In 1873 he appeared in Winnipeg at the Garrison Theatre, as 
•'Poor Pillicoddy," and there is no cod about it, when we say that 
he brought down the house. It was his last appearance in that 
sublime character. The only rats, not muskrats, but the Simple 
Simon pure, ever seen in this country, were two imported into 
Winnipeg in a package of goods. They only had time to wink on 
seeing daylight, when they closed their eyes for ever. This occurred 
in May, 1873. Our respected Sheriff Inkster met with a painful 
accident about this time, which nearly proved fatal. A near sighted 
individual mistook him for a goose while Mr. Inkster was imitating 
that bird in the long grass, and shot him in the head. 

The Liberal ceased to exist in May, 1873, and was substituted 
by the Nor' Wester, of which Mr. K. L. Barber was manager and 
editor. Rev. J. O'Meara was ordained to the priesthood on Thurs- 
day, 22nd May, '73. A Winnipeg brass band, under the leadership 
of 1). M. Madigan, was formed about this time. Dr. Lachlan 
Taylor, then on a visit here, delivered his famous lecture on the 
" Holy Land" in Grace Church. 

Messrs. Alex. MeArtlmr & Co., commenced running a saw mill 
in '72, near where Mr. McMillan's Hour mill stands to-day, and 
Macaulay & Co., who had built their large saw mill and had run it 
for one season, were busily engaged in the erection of a sash, door 
and blind factory on a large scale, the building being 140x3G. We 
omitted to mention that the date of the first steamboat arrival in 
'73 was May 3rd. Mr. Stewart Mulvey, having retired from the 


newspaper field on the demise oT the Liberal, was appointed to a 
position in the Inland Revenue Department, to assist Mr. Gouin 
who arrived here in the spring of '73, to organize that branch of the 
public service in Manitoba. 

The first steamer built to run exclusively on Red River as a 
Canadian bottom was the " Prince Rupert," which is still running 
although now considered rather antiquated. The Hudson's Bay 
Co. now commenced to show considerable activity in certain direc- 
tions. They built the propellor " Chief Commissioner" to run on 
Lake Winnipeg. This boat paid her first visit to this city on the 
9th June, 73, but she never succeeded well, and was finally 
stripped of her machinery and now lies at the Stone Fort as a 
Moating dock and warehouse. 

The Fourth Estate was represented in Winnipeg during the 
summer of 73 by a Winnipeg Typographical Union, the officers of 
which were: President, John R. Cameron; Vice-Prenident, T. 
Collins; Treasurer, J. Osborn; Recording and Financial Secre- 
tary, J. F. Galbraith; Corresponding Secretary, T. Collins. In 
June, 73, ice first began to be peddled around Winnipeg, E. L. 
Barber being the pioneer ice-man. A sale of city lots on the James 
Ross estate brought from $125 to $150 each, and the same cannot 
be bought to-day for $500 to 81,000 each. In the summer of 73 
tlie Government added the third story to the Government House, 
Foit Garry. 

On the 25th, 26th and 27th June, 73, Winnipeg witnessed for 
the last time within its limits the celebration of an Indian Dog 
Feast, On that occasion about 200 Indians assembled at Point 
Douglas and indulged in the occidental delicacy of roast dog. 

"Lord Gordon" now comes prominently upon the scene, for in 
July, 73, while on a visit to Hon. Jas. McKay, at Silver Heights, 
he was taken by two American detectives, Hoy and Kegan, and 
forcibly abducted for the purpose of handing him over to the U. S. 
authorities. The little game of our American friends, however, did 
not work, as Attorney-General Clarke on hearing of the matter 
took steps to intercept the detectives and their prisoner before they 
reached Pembina. The consequence was Lord Gordon was released 
and Hoy and Kegan placed in jail. Soon afterwards, on information 


gained from papers found on Hoy and Kegau, Mr. L 11. Bentley, 

of Winnipeg, and Messrs. Fletcher and Miriam, of Minneapolis', 
then in the city, were all arrested for complicity in the kidnapping 
case, and then commenced one of the most exciting trials ever held 
in Manitoba. 

The first brick-veneer building was erected by Alex. McMicken 
in '73, as a bank, now the Ontario Bank ; the second was by Bain 
& Blanchard, in the same year, and was. first occupied by McMicken 
& Taylor, hardware merchants, but is now the store of A. H. 
Bertrand. The store now occupied by Iiobson £ Co. was considered 
in 7o as a mercantile palace, and a lengthy description of it 
appeared in the papers of the day. I >avid Young, who was Mr. 
Higgins' manager, began to show his hand, and through his enter- 
prise, tact and business qualifications, began to build up his 
employers trade in a wonderful manner. The new store was 
designed by Mr. Young. Messrs. Genie & Co. now appeared upon 
the scene of action with a large stock of furniture. They opened 
up next to where Aslidown's branch store is at present, corner 
Portage Avenue and Main, but ere long they purchased a lot 
between McLenaghen £ Malleoli's and Dr. C. J. Bird's (now 
Caldwell's), and erected a fine furniture store. They certainly led 
the way in the importation of the better class of house furnishings. 
On the 16th July, 73, the Gazette, published by Brokovski & 
Carruthers came out in an enlarged form, and as a seven column 
paper presented a very creditable appearance. This was Alex. 
Begg's baby and he was fond of it, starting as it did as the little 
Trade Review growing into the Gazette and Trade Review, during 
which time it fought the battles of the townspeople against 
monopoly and powerful land owners ; it now came out as a seven 
colu'mn paper with a large and increasing circulation. 

The levee in the summer of '73 presented a very lively appearance, 
the booms being full of logs, the line mills of Macaulay & Co., and 
Dick & Banning, were in full operation, working day and night, 
and employing a large number of hands. 

The first screw tug-boat, the "Maggie," was built in Hamilton, 
and navigated to Duluth, then transported over the Northern Pa- 
cific Railway to Morehead, from which place she steamed down the 


Ued Kiver to Winnipeg. She was brought in by Mr. Jas. Bell, of 
Perth, brother to C.W. Bell , of the Custom House. The result of 
the Gordon kidnapping investigation, was the release of Mr. Mir- 
riam, and the commitment of the Messrs. Fletcher, Bentley, Hoy. 
and Kegan, bail being refused for these gentlemen. Consul Taylor 
naturally did all in his power for his fellow-countrymen, and in 
doing so fell under the wrath of Attorney General Clarke, who, it 
is stated, wrote to Washington to have him removed from his 
post. The removal of Mr. Taylor, however, would have ] (leased 
no one in the country but Mr. Clarke, and very wisely the Amer- 
ican Government still retain him in his position here. A new de- 
parture took place, about this time, in the mode of doing business 
in Winnipeg. We refer to the commencement of the " send-it-up- 
to-the-house " system. This was a boon to heads of families, who 
up to then, had to cany home their own parcels. Another depar- 
ture was in the case of the saloon-keepers, who, rinding small 
change scarce, issued five and ten cent checks, " Good for one 
drink" It wouldn't do, however, to have much of that kind of 
currency lying about loose now — it would infallibly lead to a run 
on the banks. 

Total imports into Manitoba, at the Tort of Winnipeg, for the 
fiscal year ending 30th June, 73, was §918,336, and exports for 
same time, £246,983. 

During the summer of 73, the blioys had " Base Ball " on the 
brain, and in consequence we had "Pioneers," " White Stars," "Red 
Stockings," " Athletics," and, we are not quite certain, how many 
more clubs in the city. 

Soundings were taken, in the summer of 73, for the " Red Riv- 
er Bridge," but they were the first and last soundings heard of in 
regard to the bridge, till this year of 79. The circulating library 
of Donaldson Bros., closed in 73, it having proved unsuccessful 

A boot black turned up in Winnipeg during the summer of 73, 
but our mud was too much for him, and he soon gave in ; 10 cents 
a shine was his charge. The steamer "Alpha," built at Brecken- 
ridge, by J. W. MeLane, of this city, arrived for the first time in 
Sept. 73. It was found, when too late, that the boat was almost 


useless to the owner, because, when exported from the U. S., she 
could not return again in the carrying trade. Mr. McLane endea- 
vored through the authorities at Ottawa, to make some arrange- 
ment at Washington to allow his boat to run in American waters, 
but it was a useless attempt. In consequence of this, Mr. McLane 
sold the boat to the Kittson line. An abortive effort was made at 
the time to start an independent line in opposition to Kittson, the 
Alpha to be one of the boats, but the scheme was not carried out. 

" Lord Gordon," after the attempt to catch him, made a break for 
the Pacific coast under the pretence of going out on the plains 
shooting, but Attorney-General Clarke, wishing him back in 
Manitoba, sent after and arrested him on the charge of stealing an 
awl worth about one shilling sterling. Poor Gordon, on his return, 
was placed in prison and looked like a man hounded to death. 
The trial of his kidnappers resulted in a nominal punishment, and 
release of alt concerned. Gordon also was released and retired to 
Headingly, where he continued to reside until the day of his death, 
which event we will be called on to chronicle before the close of our 
narrative. A great deal of feeling existed at the time of the 
Gordon trials, and it was rumored that injustice and unnecessary 
cruelty was practiced by some, high in authority, towaids the 
unfortunate man. We have not space to go into particulars, but 
this we do know, that when Mr. Clarke was Attorney-General 
there was a pretty general feeling of discontent at the arbitrary 
manner in which lie conducted the law affairs on the part of the 
Crown. There is a great difference to-day in the administration of 
justice. The first organ in Winnipeg was placed in Grace 
Church in September, '73. Mr. Archibald Wright erected his 
block in '7'-\ and it is with much pleasure we chronicle the enter- 
prise of this gentleman, fie purchased a lot, which at that time 
on account of its being on the edge of a creek was thought of little 
value. Mr. Wright, however, turned it to good account in obtain- 
ing a tine cellar for his building; besides this it is mainly due to 
Arch. Wright that Main Street at that point is now tilled up, and 
made, by his endeavours one of the most important centres of trade 
in the. city. On Tuesday, 23rd September, '73, Ambroise Lepine 
was brought before Judge Betourney on the charge of participating 



in the murder of Thomas Scott, ami the result of the investigation 
was his commitment for trial. Mr. 1). Codd was now appointed 
Dominion Land's Agent, a post which he has creditably filled ever 
since to the satisfaction of all parties. McLenaghen & Malloch 
opened their fine store in Sept., 73, where Mr. das. McLenaghen 
now is, with one of the finest and most varied stocks of dry goods 
ever seen in the city. The " Club House" was opened by R. H. 
Cronri in 73, and to-day we find him proprietor of the "Poinono 
House," the same building where he commenced business in 
Winnipeg. Oronn is anxious to demonstrate that history repeats 
itself. And now we find J. M. McGregor, at present of the Free 
Press, succeeding Lyster Hay ward in the auction line. Mac made 
a first class auctioneer, but he excells as a business manager of a 
daily paper. The ferry boat having been moved to the foot of 
Notre Dame Street the next cry raised was in regard to the unfit- 
ness of the boat, it was too small. The following is a list of the 
building operations for 73 up to the end of the month : — 

Capt. Scott erected a handsome frame residence near the bar- 
racks. The barracks themselves (or Fort Osborne) were in course 
of construction. 

The Canada Pacific Hotel was being built. 

The Carry Saloon and Dominion Hotel were erected on Main 


The Free Press office was built, and also the frame building 
south of it, was erected by Dr. Turver. Snyder & Anderson's 
fine stores were in course of construction. This firm, when they 
first came to Winnipeg, were engaged as fiat-boatmen, and made 
money. They, however, took a fancy to remain in Winnipeg, and 
immediately went to work to build the necessary stores for their 
business. Their block is to this day an ornament to the city, and 
Messrs. Snyder & Anderson are universally respected, and looked 
upon as one of the most straightforward and go-ahead firms in the 
city. In connection with Grace Church, a Wesleyan Educational 
Institute was erected near the parsonage, and opened formally on 
the 3rd November. Hon. Thos. Howard built the fine residence 
where Dr. Lynch is at present. W. Calmer Clarke having great 
faith in the prospects of the southern part of the town, erected a 


brick veneer store and dwelling, nearly opposite Snyder & Ander- 
son's. Cant. Scott, having left a military life, opened out m the 
furniture line, in company with his brother. Their first step 
was to erect a handsome frame store on Main Street, nearly oppo- 
site Grace Church, which they still occupy. W. Chambers and 
G. 1)., who had not parted company, now erected a 
store on the opposite corner from D. Scott & Co. The Mc Vicar 
Bros., having left Point Douglas, built a store next to Alex. Mc- 
Micken's Bank. Mr. Hargraves erected a store on the other side of 
the hank,, which he rented to Smith & Steele hardware merchants. 
We have already mentioned McLenaghen & Malloch, R. Gerrie & 
Co., Dr. J. C. Bird/and Bain & Blancliard's buildings. We will now 
take a look at First Street, where we rind Alloway's Pacific Boarding 
stables built ; also Mr. Hackland's cottage, Mr. Walshe's hotel— 
now the International — ami next to it, Roberts & Sinclair's livery 
stable, and Mr. Harry Pearson's dwelling. Taking a look down 
Notre Dame Street and vicinity, we are able to chronicle the first 
appearance of the Pioneer Furniture Show Rooms, Dr. Sclrakz's 
brick warehouse, several smaller houses, then Macaulay & Jams' 
Sash, Door, and Blind Factory, at a cost of somewhere about Slo- 
000. The building was a large and substantial one, and fitted up 
with the very best machinery. The fact is, W. J. Macaulay, K. W. 
Jarvis, and Dick & Panning have done more, practically speaking, 
to build up this city than almost any other men in it. Dick & 
Burning's new mill was finished, and the upper flat occupied by 
Bishop & Shelton, who used the steam power for their lathe. Re- 
turning to Main Street, we rind the store now occupied by Trott & 
Melville, but at that time by Fairbanks, tonsorial artist. Several 
small stores (still standing) occupied then by Hackett, the baker, 
Hughes," shoemaker, and Haynes & Burling, harness-makers. We 
have already mentioned J. Higgins' new store, then we jias.^ Ash- 
down's store, and come to a store fitted up and recently used by 
Stobart Eden & Co., as a warehouse, until it was removed to make 
way for their present magnificent brick block. We now come to 
the Court House, erected at a cost of about 840,000, and built 
solidly of oak logs fitted into each other and afterwards sided over 
with pine. This building cost a lot of money, but is no ornament to 


the city. We have spoken of Wright's block ami further on in the 
direction of Point Douglas, residences, &c, were erected for the 
following individuals : — J. F. Galbraith, Haynes, Stocks, Blackniore, 
Ship, Mahoney, Brooks, Curry, the Misses Mclvenzie, Heiminck, 
Johnston, C. Strang, Cooper, McGill, Deacon, Ashdown, Blackburn, 
Major Morrice, Emslie, Prof. Bryce, Mr. Stewart, Tucker. The 
north end of the city went ahead fast in those days, as it is still 
doing. We must not overlook the Thistle Store then being erected 
by Jock McGregor, elocutionist and general trader, and favorite 
with the French half-breeds. Although a Scotchman, he makes 
out to be a pretty good Frenchman, and so clever is he that he will 
learn any language at sight if there's money in it — Scotch like. 
Sam West built a neat little residence for himself nearly opposite 
where Scott's warehouse is to-day. Mr. Weill >and on retiring 
from the volunteers erected a store for himself next to the 
present telegraph building and commenced business. The fine 
work which he turned out of his shop quickly brought him 
customers, and his importations direct from England were much 
sought after. He has since then built up a magnificent business. 

Towards the close of the year 187o the subject of incorporation 
was once more taken up by the people, and a meeting was held in 
the School House, Winnipeg, on Wednesday, 22nd October. Mr. 
Ashdown was elected chairman, and W. F. Luxton, secretary. 
Nothing important was done at this meeting except to endorse the 
bill of incorporation (with some trifling changes) which was thrown 
out of the last sitting of the Legislature. An attempt on October 
25th at another meeting made by Messrs. F. Lynn and W. Clarke, 
to have a new bill framed, was voted down. 

The Bill of Incorporation was then carefully revised and corrected 
and finally submitted to the house. The Fourth Session of the 
First Parliament of Manitoba opened on the 4th November, but 
adjourned on the 8th till Monday, 15th February, 1874. Amongst 
the bills passed at that sitting, however, was that of the 


Mr. W. F. Luxton was the first to announce himself as a can- 
didate for the Mayoralty, which he did in an address published 


loth Nov. Candidates for civic honors, however, appeared very 
quickly, and the following names were spoken of: — 

For Mayor — Messrs. Kennedy, Ashdown, Bannatyne, Cornish, 
McMicken, Wilson, Macaulay, Luxton. 

Aldermen.— For the South Ward: McVicar, Clarke (VV r . P), 
Macaulay, Henderson, Roberts, Mulligan. For the West Ward: 
Ashdown, Lusted, McArthur, Villiers, Win. McDonald, Davis. 
For tlie Ea*t Ward: Donaldson, Banning, Sinclair, Wright, Hay- 
ward, Brokovski. For the North Ward : Lusted, Logan, Hyman, 
Campbell, Fonseca, More. 

An I. 0. O. F. was opened in this city in 'To, and at once met 
with unqualified success. We will refer again to the order of Odd 
Fellows later on. The walls of the Canada Pacific Hotel having 
been erected, and the windows, outer doors and the roof on, the 
■completion of the interior was not proceeded with, and in the 
meantime the building was leased for concerts, balls, &c. Mr. 
Durtin now appears as an opponent to Mr. Penrose, in the photo- 
graphing business, and It. A. Davis having found the hotel part of 
the Davis House too much trouble, leased that portion to Haverty, 
Grady & Kelly, which firm dissolved in Nov'r. Haverty & Grady 
continuing, and under their management, the Davis House earned 
a tirst-rate reputation as a hotel. We will close this chapter by 
referring to the defeat of the Macdonald Administration in Ottawa, 
in November, '73, on the Pacific scandal. When news of the res- 
ignation of Sir John A. Macdonald and his colleagues reached here, 
some parties got up a bonfire, and a rude attempt to bum Sir John, 
in effigy. This was the second bonfire lit in Winnipeg, in honor 
of Sir John's failing power, and there is this to be said about it 
that neither demonstration proved a success. Mr. Mackenzie was 
known to have stated that a cart-track was good enough for Mani- 
toba, for years to come, and therefore there was not a general state 
of rejoicing at Sir John's downfall, because his successor had not 
the hearty sympathy of the people of Manitoba. 



VINCIAL Insurance Co.— Mayor Cornish— Aldermen— Reform Con- 
vention — Nectar — City Council— - Dominion Elections — A Kaleide- 
scopic Candidate— Fire and Water — The "Grangers " — Rev Mr. 
Robertson— Wesleyan-tR. A. Davis and Ai.kx. Momicken — Louis 
Rikl— Owes Hughes— City Chambfrlain— City Kxpress— Surveyors' 
Association— Mass Meeting— Band ok Hope— Sidewalks— Hon. K. B. 
Wood— Manitoba Felix— Imports— Manitoba " Free Press "—Death 
of Mr. Cunningham— A F.k; Business — City Property — Clarke's 
Defeat— Davis Victor — Uirard's Cabinet— "Portage" Stack— 
Horsey— The Turf — Bloodshed—" Lord Gordon's" Suicide — Missing 
Loot— The Scaffold— The Rifle— Raising the Wind— Pacific Ho- 
tel — Hooks and Ladders — Pembina Branch— Fire Kngine— -Manito- 
ba College — In Memoriam— Cemetery — Foolish Fairbanks — Bishop 
of Saskatchewan — Milk— Obituary — City Development— Historical 
Society — Mayor's Banquet — Telegraphic — Cabinet Resigns — Premier 
Davis-=-Dr. Benson— Red River Bridge— (Jovernmhnt Buildings — 
Pitsh — Business Statistics — Peal Estate. 

The first great tire in Winnipeg occurred, on Wednesday, the 
3rd Dec, 'To, when the Parliament Buildings were burned down. 
It appears that, through a defective stove-pipe, the walls in a par- 
tition in the second storey had caught tire, and before discovered, 
the flames had gained such headway that it was found impossible 
to save the building. Winnipeg turned out en masse to assist, 
every exertion was made to save the furniture, and valuable Gov- 
ernment library, but notwithstanding the efforts of the citizens, a 
great many books and numerous valuable papers were lost, At 
one time it was feared that the stores of A. (1. 1). Bannatyne would 
ignite but by hard work, the fire was confined to the Parliament 
Building, which after burning slowly for some hours, was finally 
reduced to a heap of ashes. Several rumois were afloat as to the 
origin and cause of the fire, and an investigation was afterward", 
held by the Government, but nothing of importance was elicited 
or proof sufficient to place the blame on any individual. The first 


voters' list for thtj civic elections was published on the 1st Dec, 

'73, and the following is the numerical result : — 

North Ward 92 voters. 

South Ward SG " 

EastWard 123 " 

WestWard 87 " 

Total 388. 

Of course, these figures show a large number of repeaters, the 
actual number of voters in the city beiin* only 308. Canvassing 
and election meetings were now the order of the day, and Messrs. 
Cornish and Luxton, being the only candidates in the field for the 
mayoralty, these two gentlemen abused each other to their hearts' 
content. During the latter part of December, the Provincial Insu- 
rance Co. extended their business to this country, .Air. David Me- 
Arthur being their agent, and Messrs. Bannatyne, Lyon, and W. 
B. Clarke, the first local board. On Wednesday, 20th Dec,, 1873, 
the first nomination of candidates for the mayoralty took place 
with the following result : F. E. Cvrnish, nominated by Alex. 
Brown, seconded by A. E. Wilson ; 11'. F. Lvzton,hy\X. V. Clark, 
seconded by T. Lusted; Duncan, Sinclair, by W. F. Luxton, sec- 
onded by John McViear ; William McDonald, by J. H. Ashdown, 
seconded by N. W. Banning ; Messrs. Cornish and Luxton were 
the only candidates for whom a poll was demanded. On Monday, 
Jan. 5th, 1874, the first civic election took place as follows: — 

F. E. Cornish, for Mayor 383 votes. 

W. F. Luxton, „ „ 179 .. 

Majority for Cornish 204 

It will be seen by this that there were a large number of repeat- 
ing votes cast. W. F. Luxton contended that Cornish's actual 
majority was 34. 

South Ward. West Ward, 

T. Scott 83 Arch. Wright 110 

H. Swinford 82 J. H. Ashdown 113 

J. McLenaghen 80 J. Higgins 97* 


East Ward. North Ward. 

A. Strang 143 A. Logan 122 

W. B. Thibaudeau 146 W. G. Fonseca 113 

Stewart Miilvey 12G J. B. More 91 

Cornish was supported by the Hudson's Bay Co. and their friends, 
and there is no doubt he owed his election to their patronage. 

The Dominion elections being close at hand, a meeting was cal- 
led in Brouse's hotel, on Tuesday, 13th dan., to chose five dele- 
sates from the city to attend the " Reform Convention," W. F. 
Luxton was appointed chairman, and J. If. Cameron, secretary. 
The following delegates were then elected : Messrs. Arch. Wright, 
W. B. Thibaudeau, W. F. Luxton, A. E. Wilson, and Jas. II. Ash- 

In January, '74, California fruit and other delicacies were brought 
from Morehead overland, in a covered caravan with a stove in it 
and peddled from door to door in the streets of Winnipeg ! The first 
meeting of the city council took place on Wednesday, 19th dan., 
'74, in the council chamber, which was fitted up for the purpose, 
overhead, in the building now occupied by Lyster, as a clothing 

The Dominion elections being carried on in Manitoba, we find 
Donald A. Smith opposed in Selkirk by John Taylor, but almost 
at the last moment, Mr. Taylor resigned in favor of A. G. Banna- 
tyne, who up to the moment of his candidature, had been a strong 
supporter of Donald A., and in fact had only returned from can- 
vassing the country in favor of Mr. Smith. Mr. Bannatyne's sud- 
den change took everybody by surprise, and the fact of his having 
been such a strong supporter of Mr. Smith, made it up-hill work 
for him in his canvas. The French were pledged to Mr. Smith, 
and as Mr. Bannatyne was unpopular with a large number of the 
English, the result was the election of Donald A. Smith, by 104 
of a majority. 

Mr. Bannatyne, in order to run against Mr. Smith, resigned his 
his position as postmaster, and John McDougall, head clerk in the 
office, was soon afterwards appointed in his stead. 

At the second meeting of the Council, A. M. Brown was elected 


by 7 votes out of 12 to be city clerk, Lyster Hay ward, Chamber- 
lain, by 10 votes. 

The Local Legislature met on Thursday, Feb. 5th, '74, pursuant 
to adjournment in Nov. previous. The Dominion elections in 
Manitoba, in February, resulted as follows : — 


Selkirk, Donald A. Smith 104 

Lisgar, Dr. Schultz 69 

Provencher, Louis Kiel 120 

Marquette, If. Cunningham 45 

On Sunday, 15th Feb., '74, the Good Templar's Hall, on Notre 
Dame Street was burned down. It had been, at one time occu- 
pied by the Xrvs Letter, and later by the Liberal printing com- 
panies. Clarke & McClure were heavy importers of American 
dressed and plain lumber, at this time. One of the results of the 
Smith-Bannatyne election was the establishment of a secret politi- 
cal society in Winnipeg, called the " Grangers," the members of 
which were composed of Bannatyne's supporters, and the object of 
the club was to inaugurate a determined opposition to the H. B. 
Co. This society, in a short time, became so strong that it was 
able to control any election in the city of Winnipeg. In religious 
matters, we have to report the arrival, in March, of Rev. J. Rob- 
ertson, to take charge of Knox Church. Knox Church, up to this 
time, had not been blessed with any regularly appointed clergy- 
man, several ministers doing service from time to time. The Rev. 
Mr. Robertson has continued ever since to minister to the Presby- 
terians in this city, and no preacher of the gospel is held in higher 
respect by our citizens, than is he — earnest and painstaking, he is 
respected by all B who know him. About this time the YVesleyans 
ereetecT a small church in the North Ward, for the accommodation 
of their rapidly increasing numbers. Hon. D. A. Smith, having 
been elected to the Commons, was obliged to resign his seat in the 
Local Legislatiire,Jand in consequence an election had to talce place 
to fill the vacancy. R.A.Davis and Alex. McMicken became 
the candidates, the former gentleman being the choice of the Win- 
nipeg Grangers. Mr. Davis came to this country during the re- 
bellion, and after the arrival of the troops,-- having some money, ho 


purchased the business of Geo. Emerling as hotel-keeper. He 
made a good bargain, and acquired wealth rapidly, and during the 

Smith-Bannatyne election he came to the front as a shrewd politi- 
cian. The Grangers chose him as their champion, and on the dav 
of election, 7th April, '74, they marched to the polls in a body and 
secured his return as member for Winnipeg, before Alex. MeMick- 
en and his friends had time to realize the situation. About this 
time the people of Winnipeg, through the Council, and by means 
of a mass meeting, protested loudly against Louis IJeil being per-* 
mitted to take his seat in the Commons, as member for Proveni 

F. E. Kew, of London, England, whom we have already men- 
tioned, now entered into partnership with D. M. Stobart, under the 
name and style of Kew, Stobart & Co., and A. G. B. Bannatvne 
soon after sold out Ids entire stock of dry goods to the new firm, 
which, having rented his premises, commenced a retail and whole- 
sale dry goods business in Winnipeg. At first the busi- 
ness in this city was carried on under the name of 0. E. 
Hughes & Co., Mr. Hughes being an employee of the English 
house. From that day to this the business of this house has gone 
on steadily increasing year by year, until now, under the name of 
Stobart Eden £ Co., (Mr. Kew having retired) their trade in this 
city, as well as throughout the whole of the north-west, is second 
only to the Hudson's Bay Co. 

Mr. Lyster Hay ward having resigned the ottice of chamberlain, 
on account of the smallness of the salary, Mr. James S. liamsay 
was appointed in his place. 

The " first boat " of the season, in '74, arrived on Thursday, April 
30th, The pioneer City Express started in May, '74. During the 
same month the local Board of Trade passed resolutions condemna- 
tory of the action of the Dominion Government in respect to public 
works in Manitoba. A surveyor's association was formed in May, 
'74, with the following officers : President, A. L. Vaughan; Vice- 
President, J. L. Beid; Secretary, F. A. Martin; Treasurer, Geo. 
MtThillips ; Committee, C. J. Bouchette, A. L. Russell, O. B. 
Davidson, andD. Sinclair. A mass meeting called by Mr. Villiers, 
Vice-President of the Board of Trade, was held on Thursday, 14th 


May, and after a good deal of talk in regard to the location of the 
new Post Office, finally passed the following resolution : " That this 
"■' meeting, representing the inhabitants of Manitoba, earnestly and 
" respectfully call upon the Dominion Government to proceed with- 
out deky in the prosecution of the railway from Winnipeg to 
" Pembina, and the building of the necessary local public works." 

A '-Baud of Hope" temperance lodge was started the latter end 
of May, '74, with upwards of 20 members. On the 10th May, 
'74, another " Board of Trade " meeting was held and a resolution 
passed, regretting that the site chosen for the Tost Office was not 
more central. The City Council was appealed to in the matter 
but Mayor Cornish, who had been absent on a visit to Canada, sta- 
ted that he had represented matters fully at Ottawa, and hoped 
that a more central location for the Post Office would be chosen, 
In the meantime, the construction of side-walks was being proceed- 
ed with, ami substantial crossings placed at the intersection of the 
streets. Capt. Scott having been obliged to retire from the Coun- 
cil, on account of his connection with the military, J. It. Cameron, 
reporter on the Free Press, was elected by acclamation in his 
place. Hon. E. B. Wood arrived on the 6th June, '74, as Chiei 
Justice of Manitoba, and from that iky till now, a more perfect and 
comprehensive administration of justice has prevailed. 

The Imports at the Port of Winnipeg for 1874, were $1,797,- 
033, against §918,336 in '73. The first burglary in the history of 
the city of Winnipeg, took place on Wednesday night, 3rd June, 
'74, when a quantity of furs were stolen from 11. Patterson. The 
third dentist in Winnipeg was J. H. Talbot ; and amongst the 
houses engaged in business during '74 and 75, were Smith & Mun- 
roe, hardware merchants, a few doors south of McLenaghen's & 
Malloch's, and W. rainier Clarke, opposite Snyder & Anderson's. 

On Monday, July 6th, the Manitoba Free Press made a new de- 
parture, and with an exhibit of enterprise on the part of the pro- 
prietors justified, doubtless, by the rapid strides that business 

was universally taking throughout the Province — came to the front 
with its first daily edition, the first appearance indeed of a daily 
newspaper in the Nor'- West. This effort on the part of the man- 
agement appeared to be duly appreciated, for a liberal share of ad- 


vertising patronage, and an increased circulation rewarded the 
venture The telegraphic despatches, of this date, brought the news 
of the death of Mr. Robt. Cunningham, the late editor of the Mani- 

toban, which was received alike by all classes of the community, 

independent of politics or creed, with sincere manifestations of 
regret. Mr. Cunningham was a brilliant journalist, and the news- 
paper world sustained in his early demise, an acknowledged loss. 

The Spring Saks of 74 made by Ivew, Stobart & Co., of Lon- 
don, England, to the merchants of Winnipeg, and traders of the 
XuiMVest, amounted, at that early stage of their history, to £30,- 
000 sterling, whilst hosts of houses in Ontario and Quebec had ac- 
tually yet to learn of the existence of trade in Manitoba. 

Harry Kirk was at this time taken, in hand by the city council, 
and was appointed city hall messenger, a position which he has 
filled with credit up to the present time. Referring again to the 
value of city property, the following comparative table of the ru- 
ling prices, against those of 72, will give a more correct idea of 
the practical progressiveness of Winnipeg than pages of emphatic 
assertion : — 


1871. 1872. 1874. 

H. B. Co. Estate $700 $1000 32000 

McDermott Estate 75 100 400 

Bannatyne „ 75 100 400 

Morris „ 50 100 250 

Schultz „ 50 ' 100 500 

Magnus Brown „ 10 25 50 

Ro ^ „ 50 75 350 

After a pretty exciting scrimmage in the Local House between 
Attorney-General Clarke and R. A. Davis, in which the latter 
proved more than a match for the former, a direct vote of non- 
confidence was passed by 15 to 7 against the Clarke Government. 
Mr. Davis had pledged himself to overthrow the Government, and 
it did not take him long to fulfil his promise. Mr. Clarke for some 
time had been losing his strength with the French party, and 
although he tried every means in his power to make up with the 
English, they would not accept him. The people regarded him as 



too fond of extremes, for while championing the French party he 
was extremely anti-Ontarian, and again when he quarrelled with the 
Metis he became in time exceedingly anti-French. These sudden 
changes were not acceptable to the people, and so Mr. Clarke 
finding his power deserting him suddenly left the country. Hon. 
M. A. Girard was then called on to form a Ministry, which he did 
with the following colleagues: — Messrs. Hay, Davis, Ogletree, and 


During the summer of 74 a tri- weekly stage was started by John 
McKenny & Bro. between Winnipeg and Portage. The attempt on 
the part of the Dominion Government to bring passengers overland 
from Lake Superior in '74 was not a successful operation. The 
contractors, Carpenter & Co., never gave satisfaction, and finally 
the Government had to abandon it. A racing park was established 
by one Fullerton on the outskirts of the city about this time, and 
the " fancy" had opportunities to speed their nags. 

On Thursday, the 18th dune, '74, a most horrible murder was 
committed on the prairie near the city. The victim was a young 
man named James E. Brown, and it appears he was attacked by 
some volunteers and dreadfully mutilated. One Michaud was 
arrested on suspicion and afterwards confessed to the crime. This 
affair threw the city into a great state of excitement. The last 
scene in the life of " Lord Gordon" took place at Headingly on 1st 
Auoust '74, when he committed suicide by shooting himself in the 
head. It appears that another attempt was made to carry him off, 
this time through a warrant issued in Toronto. Mr. Bain and Mr. 
Gilbert McMicken unfortunately became mixed up in the matter, 
the former having been employed in his capacity as a lawyer, and 
the latter as a police magistrate to secure the arrest. There is no 
doubt through dread of being carried to the States to undergo a 
lon^ imprisonment, and driven to desperation by a series of per- 
secutions while in this country, the unfortunate man committed 
the rash act. It is well known to many that " Lord Gordon" came 
to Manitoba with a large sum of money and valuables, but nothing 
has ever transpired to show what became of this. 

The Grand Central was built about this time, and R. H. Cronn 
became its first proprietor. The daily Free Press had now an op- 


ponent in the shape of the Daily Xonvexter, the latter being the 
organ of Hon. E. A Davis, and edited by Alexander Be»g. The 
local government money at this time was deposited with Mr. Alex. 
McMicken, banker ; and the question arising whether the public 
funds should be entrusted to a private banker, the result was that 
the government account was transferred to the Merchants' Bank 
of Canada, where it has remained ever since. On the death of R. 
Cunningham, Mr. Joseph Ryan, who was protesting the Maiquette 
election at the time, claimed the seat, and by a decision of the 
Chief Justice, obtained it. On Friday, 38th August '74, Michaud 
was executed for the murder of Brown. This was the first execu- 
tion in Winnipeg, and threw a gloom over the whole community. 
The mayor's chair was made by Mr. Charles Bennet, of London, 
Ontario, in 74, and cost somewhere about $1 00. A great Rifle 
Tournament took place in September, the opening day being Tues- 
day, the loth, when Mrs. Morris, wife of the Lieut. -Governor, open- 
ed the proceedings by tiring off the first gun, at 11 a.m. The first 
by-law to empower the city council to raise money, was submitted 
to the people, and afterwards carried. It was for the following 
purposes : 

First — For the construction of sewers, one hundred thousand 

Second — For the purchase of tire engines and apparatus, and the 
construction of tanks for fire purposes, twenty-five thousand dollars. 

Third — For the construction and erection of water- works, and pro- 
curing and laying down of pipes, conduits, See., forty thousand 

Fourth — For the construction of a market-house, city hall, and 
police station, twenty thousand dollars. 

Fifth— For widening, opening, and straightening of streets, ten 
thousand dollars. 

Sixth— For grading and improving streets, thirty thousand 

Seventh — For the construction of sidewalks and bridges, twenty- 
five thousand dollars. 

On Thursday, Sept. 24th, '74, some little excitement was created 
in the city by the giving way of the walls of the Canada Pacific 


Hotel. The foundation of the southern vail of the building had 
caved in, and a total collapse of the building seemed probable. 
Steps were immediately taken to secure the walls from falling, and 
this was succesfully carried out. The northern wall showed no 
signs of giving way, but the building was rendered . useless, and 
fears for the safety of other brick buildings in course of erection 
in the city, were entertained. We have since that time discover, 
cd, however, that foundations for brick and stone buildings can be 
made perfectly secure. 

A Hook and Ladder Company was organized latter end of Sept. 
'74, and Mr. J. H. Pearson elected the first captain of the b'hoys, 
Mr. Alex. Brown being the lieutenant. The first sod of the Pem- 
bina Branch was turned by Mr. Whitehead's accountant, Mr. Peach, 
on Saturday, the 19th Sept., 74. The excavation for the first wa- 
ter tank was commenced on Motfday, 28th Sept., and about the 
same time the city council sent an order for a steam fire engine. 
A lot and house on Post Office Street was purchased from A. Mc- 
Dermott, sen., for an engine house, and a hose and engine com- 
pany was formed, in addition to the hook and ladder company. The 
' Manitoba College was opened on the 5th Oct., '74, in Point Doug- 
las, in a building almost opposite the present location. Rev. 
Jas. Robertson was inducted as pastor of Knox Church, on Wed- 
nesday, 14th Oct. 1874, before a large and attentive congregation. 

We have now to record the death of " Grouse," Van's dog, which 
occurred near Morehead : everybody sympathised with Van in his 
bereavement. Possibly apropos of this, a cemetery company was 
spoken of at this time, but evidently sufficient stock was not sub- 
scribed, as the matter fell through. In October '74, the local Gov- 
ernment purchased the building on Tost Office Street, which they 
have occupied- ever since as public offices; and we neglected to 
mention that after the burning of Mr. Bannatyne's building, Par- 
liament used the Court House for their sittings. Our tonsorial 
artist Fail-banks having realized a fortune in the barber business, 
saw tit to abandon a good thin- and go into hotel keeping, which 
is not always good for green hands at the business. Fairbanks 
bought an interest in the Exchange, (now the International) mar- 
ried afterwards, and failed, his tonsorial savings having been scat- 


tered to the winds. Archdeacon McLean, having been created 
Bishop of Saskatchewan, Holy Trinity was crowded to excess 
(many being unable to gain admittance) on Sunday evening, Oct. 
28th, to hear him preach. The first milkmen in Winnipeg were 
1). L. Clink and Boyd & Uowler, the latter being still in the busi- 
ness. There was no watered milk in those days. Mr. A. K. Wil- 
son, of the firm of Wilson & Hyman died on Sunday, 8th Novem- 
ber, '74, regretted by a large circle of friends; and on the same 
night Mr. Farquharson, the father of Mrs. Sehultz,, also breathed 
his last. Mr. Farquharson came to this country witli his two 
daughters before Winnipeg was even thought of. He was a warm 
hearted man. 

And now we rind our friend Luxton out with a two column and 
a half address to the electors of Rockwood. He was elected. As 
near as could be calculated the number of buildings in Winnipeg 
in 1874, was as follows : — 

Total number of dwellings 408 

" hotels 17 

" " " saloons 7 


" " " boarding-houses 

" " " manufactures 27 

" " " miscellaneous buildings 421 

Total number of buildings in '74 90,'! 

Before we close this work we will enumerate the number of build- 
ings in 1879, showing a wonderful increase. An attempt was made 
in Nov. '74, to establish a historical society, but it was not es- 
tablished at that time. The great trial of Ambroise T-epine, for 
the murder of Scott, took place in October, and on Wednesday, 
Oct. 28th, he was sentenced by Chief Justice Wood, to be hanged 
on the 29th January, 1875. 

Messrs. Wilson & Biydon opened the first skating rink in Win- 
nipeg at the foot of Tost Oflice Street, in December, '74. The 
building was 45x120 feet clear, with ladies' and gentlemen's dress- 
ing rooms, 18x24. It was largely patronized during the winter of 
'74-'7o. Mayor Cornish knew how to do things handsomely, for 
towards the close of his term in Nov. '74, he gave a grand dinner 


to the aldermen and officers of the corporation in the Grand Cen- 
tral Hotel. Amongst the guests present were Chief Justice Wood, 
Hon. D. A. Smith, Hon. P. A. Davis, Lieut. Col. Smith, G. Mc- 
Micken, Consul Taylor, W. F. Luxton, all the aldermen and a good 
sprinkling of citizens. A mayor's dinner ought to be given every 
year, hut it isn't. Several of the water tanks were completed, and 
the steam fire engine having arrived it underwent its first trial at 
the foot of Post Office Street on Saturday, Nov. 28, '74. 

The telegraph line was completed between Winnipeg and Stone 
Fort on the 27th of Nov. '74, and the following was the first mes- 
sage wired : 

CHAPEL, 24 miles north of Winnipeg. 
To David Class, Grand Central: 

"We have finished; 3:30 p. in. SlFTON & FLEMING." 

The skating rink of Wilson & Brydon came down with a crash 
on Sunday, Nov. 30tli, and many of our readers will remember the 
wreck as it appeared. The proprietors, however, at once com- 
menced re-building. On Wednesday, 9th of Dec, '74, the Girard 
Government placed their resignation in the hands of the Lieuten- 
ant Governor. The resignations were accepted, and Hon. P. A. 
Davis was called on to form a new ministry, which he did as fol- 
lows : Hon. R. A. Davis, Provincial Treasurer ami Premier; Hon. 
Joseph Royal, Minister of Public Works, and Provincial Secretary; 
Hon. Colin Inkster, Speaker Legislative Council, and President of 
Executive Council. A Crown council was afterwards appointed in 
the person of J. D. Walker, to take the place of the Attorney Gen- [ 
eral. Hon. R. A. Davis had already proved himself to be a clever 
and shrewd politician, and from the time that he became the means 
of ousting H. J. Clarke from power, till the day of his retirement 
from public life, he continued to hold the confidence of a very large 
majority of the people of Manitoba. Successful in his own private 
business, in which he was known as an upright and just man, 
although some considered him a hard bargainer, he conducted the 
public affairs on the same principle, and took as much care of the 
government funds as if they were his own. Bv his care and good 
management he brought the affairs of the Province out of chaos into 
order, and placed them on a most satisfactory footing. 


The funeral of W. V. Elvvood, who built the first streets in Win- 
nipeg, took place on Tuesday, 22d of Dec., '74. 

Dr. E. Benson arrived in our midst on Friday, 18th Dec, 1874 
and took up his residence with his brother, J. R. Benson. Dr. 
Benson was not long until he built for himself a large city as well 
as a country practice. An orderly mass meeting of the citizens 
was held on Friday evening, 25th Dec, '74, in the " Bride of the 
West," (we had no city hall then,) for the purpose of memorializing 
the Government to run the C. P. R. through to Winnipeg, and 
build the railway bridge at this point. A number of resolutions 
were carried. Amongst others, one ottered by das. H. Ashdown, 
drawing the attention of the Government to the necessity for a Red 
River bridge. 

We will now take a look at the building operations durimrl874 
in the city. Mr Hespeler elected the fine block, the lower portion 
of which is now used as Dominion Government Emigration Offices. 
He also built what is known as the Lome House next door. The 
Dominion Government erected the Custom House and Lands ottice, 
both handsome buildings, and still ornaments to the city. The H. 
B. Co. built offices south of the Canada Pacific Hotel, one end of 
which is now used by the Bank of Montreal. Dr. Schultz erected 
the residence which was afterwards purchased by Chief Justice 
Wood, who still occupies it. Hon. Alex. Morris constructed a fine 
frame building on the corner of Portage Avenue and Main Street 
which was immediately occupied by McMicken & Taylor, hardware 
merchants, and H. S. Donaldson Bros., booksellers. Donaldson, 
Bros, are still there, McM. & T. are no more. Hon. R. A. Davis 
had built an addition to the Davis House, which up to the present 
time is known as the Blue Store. Next we note the splendid 
three-storey brick building erected by John Higgins, and on the op- 
posite side of the street its counterpart belonging to A. G. B. Ban- 
natyne. Fort Osborne we have already mentioned. Then there 
was the Grand Central Hotel, and several other buildings. We 
have already shown the number of houses in Winnipeg, but it may 
not be amiss to enumerate the business houses, &c. There were 

4 Dry Goods stores, 4 Hardware stores, 2 Watchmakers' shops, 

5 book-stores, 2 gunsmiths' shops, 2 banks, 4 livery-staLles, 19 


general stores, 3 drug stores, b' paint shops, ( .J blacksmith shops, 2 
barber shops, 4 harness makers, 1 marble works, 4 carriage mak- 
ers, 4 printing offices, 4 furniture shops, 4 auctioneers, 3 tobacco 
stores, 3 boot and shoe stores, 3 photographic rooms, 2 fur stores, 
6 bakeries and confectioners, 1 telegraph office, 3 milliner shops, 
2 flour and feed stores, 3 butcher shops, 11 lawyers, 8 doctors, 1 
soda manufactory, 3 saw mills, 2 planing mills, 3 brick yards, 2 
tailors, &c, &c, 

Mr. A. W. Burrows, who had for some time been in the 1 >omin- 
ion Land office, went into the real estate business, and there can 
be no doubt that through his enterprise in advertising city proper- 
ty, he did much to bring Winnipeg prominently before the world 
as a field for investment. 



Local Elections— Davis vs. Scott— Victorious Candidates— Civic Flections 
Manhoka Cliu— Risk and Fall— An Active Brigade — Dust and. 
Ashks— Removal— Petroleum— Higctns k Young— Bad Oil— City Im- 
provements— Busy Councillors— A Bold Merchant— A Big Thing on 
Ice — Agricultural Society — Lefine — AnAgressive Sentry— "Against 
Kittson"— Opposition Line— "Ichabod— The Dignity of tub Bench 
A Rapid Justice— The Cash System— Charters— Flowing Wells— 
Railway Delegation— Bridge Matteks in 1875— " Tempora Mutan-. 
run" — a Prophetic " Free Press " — Mennonitek — Mr. Hespeler — Leg- 


Ko. 6— Wire Pulling— Spelling Bee— A Boss Spellist— The "Max- 
itoba" — Sewer-ly — Flotsom and Jetsom — Dr. Bikd'k Store— BoOK- 
binper— The Domestic Tub — Splitting Hairs— The Ontario Bank- 
George Brown— Fun ereal— Holy Trinity— Baptist Chapel — D. M. 
Walker — Grasshoppers— The Swallow— Town Hall— Steam Ferry— 
Mackenzie's Steel Rails. t 

The local elections in '74, resulted as follows:— In Winnipeg, 
Hon. li. A. Davis was opposed by Capt Scott, 

Hon. 11. A. Davis polled 198 votes, 

Capt.Scott " 183 " 

Majority tor Davis 15 

St. Pauls Hon. Dr. J. C. Bird 

St. Andrews South Hon. John Norquay, 

St. Andrews North, .John Giiim. 

St. Clements Hon. T. Howard. 

' St. James Andrew Bourke. 

St. Charles Alex. Murray. 

Headingley J ohn Taylor. 

St. Francois Xavier East Lepine. 

St. Francois Xavier West Hon Jos. Royal, 

Baie St. Paul F. Chenier. 

Poplar Point F. E Cornish. 

High Bluff" Dr. Cowan. 

Portage la Prairie K. McKen/.ie. 

Westbourue C. P. Brown. 



Lake Manitoba Angus McKay. 

Rockwood W. F. Lnxton. 

Springfield W 4 R. Dick 

Point de Chene Charles Nolin. 

St. Boniface... Hun. M. A Girard. 

St. Vital Jos. Lemay. 

St.Norbert Hon. Jos. Public. 

St. Agathe F.A, Martin. 

Kildonau was a tie between Frazer and Sutherland. 
In the civic elections of 1875, F. E. Cornish was opposed by 
•Major W. N. Kennedy. The following is the result of the polls: 


W. R. Kennedy 218 

F. E. Cornish 164 

Majority for Kennedy 54 

soi ni WARD. 

Jas. McLenaghen / 82 

Alex. McMicken 79 

J. II. Cameron 69 


Alex. Logan 102 

T. Lusted 93 

W. G. Fonseca 89 

West ward. 

Arch. Wright 81 

Willoughby Clarke 64 

J*. Villiers 56 


John Hackett 107 

1). Sinclair 76 

M. Davis 75 

Hardly had our city become incorporated than a few of our lead- 


in^ citizens took it into their heads that we ought to have a club, 
and accordingly certain gentlemen at once went to work to form 
one. C. W. Kadiger, CoL Osborne Smith, and a few others, were 
the leading spirits in the scheme. Booms were obtained in Mc- 
Dermott's block and arrangements made with F. Pagerie, of the 
St. James Restaurant, in McDermott's Block, to cater for the club. 
A Billiard room was one of the features, and although the "Manito- 
ba " was not, by any means, what it is to-day, it was still a very 
creditable concern. Soon after its establishment, however, the club 
fell literally into ruins. Mr. Pagerie had a badc^room in his res- 
taurant, and in this apartment one afternoon afire broke out, which 
in a very short space of time spread to other parts of the building. 
McDermott's block was one of the oldest buildings in the 
city, and very dry and inflammable. The fire therefore 
had easy work, and soon reduced the whole block to 
ashes. In fact the efforts of the fire brigade were 

directed almost entirely to saving the surrounding buildings. Moil- 
champ's, now Prudhomme's hotel, on Tost Office Street, bad a nar- 
row escape. It was the first real trial presented to the fire brigade 
with their new steam tire engine. The following is the time made 
on that occasion by the b'hoys from the sounding of the alarm : 

The first hose was laid in 34 minutes ; the first water thrown in 
11 minutes; the second jet was thrown in 17 minutes; the fire 
was under control in 21 minutes ; and this, it must be remembered, 
was early in the month of January. Our present tire brigade will 
have to be itp and doing to beat that. The benefit of the water 
tanks which the corporation had sunk in our streets, was experi- 
enced on the occasion which we write of; in fact few cities without 
water works are better provided than are we for battling with the 
fire tien 1. The loss by this conflagration was about $11,450, dis- 
tributed as follows : 

Taillefer & Lillie, (owners of block) $ 2,500 

Mercer & Villiers, stock 2,500 

F. Pagerie 3,000 

O. Monehamp 500 

M. Foucher 500 

M. Mondor 200 


Dr. O'Donnell fcOO 

F. McKenzie 200 

Manitoba Club '.. 1 OOO 

J. B. Haines 300 

Win. Sinclair, a guest in Pagerie's restaurant, lost $350 in cash. 

In January, 'To, .lames H. Ashdown moved his store a little to 

the north of his lot to make room for the splendid brick block 

which he afterwards erected. A corner in oil took place durino- 

the winter of 'To, and that article jumped to $1:75 a gallon. 

On the 1st of Feb. 'To, David Young was admitted i n to partner- 
ship with his late employer, John Higgins. This was a deserved 
tribute, for Mr. Young, by tact, perseverance and energy had 
built up the business of Mr. Higgins to large proportions. From 
the time he entered as clerk to Mr. Higgins he had continued to 
infuse new life into the business of that gentleman. The firm has 
had several changes in its co-par tnership since that time, but Mr. 
Higgins and Mr. Young .still stick together. About this time the 
customs officials undertook to test the coal oil held by the dealers 
in the city, and a quantity, of inferior quality was discovered, much 
to the disgust of the holders thereof. Some idea of the work per- 
formed by the City Council during 74 may lie gathered from the 
following : 


North Ward $1,072.2G 

South Ward 2,313.41 

East Ward 2,089.82 

West Ward 2,770,^4 

$8,246. 05 


North Ward 24(1.1 ~. 

South Ward 990.8 T 

East Ward 1,117.04 

West Ward 849.98 

Total cost of bridge work $ 621. ."9 


Lineal Yards. 

Total length of sidewalks 4,3 16 

" " crossings 544 

« « streets graded 1,938 

u " new ditches 793 

" " covered drains 513 

Quantity of earth deposited on .streets 912 loads. 

In Feb., '75, Mr. W. H. Lyons sold out his dry goods stock to A. 
H. Bertram!, and from that time has confined himself to groceries, 
<fcc. He gradually n to cultivate a wholesale trade in addition 
to Ids retail department, and being a fearless operator, he very soon 
worked into a very large connection. His sales to Government 
contractors were on an extensive scale, and he was always ready fro 
fill any order, no matter how large, sq lo)><j as the pay was sure. 

The first skating carnival in this city took place in Wilson & 
Brydon's Rink on Thursday, the 4th of Feb., '75. It was a grand 
affair, and a decided novelty at that time. The Selkirk Agricul- 
tural Society having for some reason come to grief, steps were taken 
in Feb., '75, to form another one. This was accomplished, and the 
following officers chosen: President, Duncan McVicar; Vice 
Preside, its, W. Corbet and Duncan Sinclair; Directors, Dr. Ben- 
son, Ed. Banke, W. 15. Hall, John Eraser, YV. J. Corrigaii, Hon. M. 
A. Girard and A. G. B. Bannatyne ; Secretary, -Tames Stewart '. 
Treasurer, W. G. Foiiseca. Owing to certain rumors regarding 
an attempt to rescue Lepine from jail a military guard was placed 
at the Court House, and solitary citizens going home late at night 
used to be stopped short in that vicinity by a man with a musket 
sinking out, " Who goes there ?" The citizens at last considering 
the thing monotonous, began to complain. The monopoly of the carry- 
ing trade on the Bed River by the Kittson Line, and the excessive 
charges made by that company for freight, at last induced several 
of the merchants of the city to get up an opposition line. To do 
this they had to call in the assistance of American citizens in order 
to have the boats regularly bunded under the United States laws. 
Accordingly the following gentlemen were found who joined arti- 
cles of association, viz: R. J. Baldwin, Minneapolis; Hon. Thos. 
Simpson, H. K. Curtis, Judge Aimer Lewis and Hon. John Doug- 


las, Winona; Arthur Thornton, Franconia, and James Douglas, 
Moorhead. The officers of the company were: Aimer Lewis, 
President ; John Douglas, Secretary; James Douglas, Treasurer and 
General Manager. The hulls of two steamers were built at Cin- 
cinnati and transported to Moorhead, where they were put together, 
The machinery was from the North Star Works, Minneapolis. The 
capital was set at 850,000, with power to increase to $100,000, but 
unfortunately for the success of the line, the most of the money 
was subscribed in Winnipeg, and the directors in the States had 
little if anything to lose by any mismanagement of the business. 
At tee Feb. sitting of the Court of Queen's Bench, in '75, Dr. 
Schultz had a true bill found against him for perjury. The result 
of the trial showed, however, that the charge had been made from 
political animus against the doctor, and, therefore, should never 
have been brought against him. The whole matter was the out- 
come of the heat of the election contest, and the end of the trial 
was the full acquittal of Dr. Schultz. It was thought by some that 
Chief Justice Wood had favored the doctor, (in our opinion, he 
would have done- perfectly right to have quashed the whole case 
at the beginning,) and the Free Press, in an article entitled " Icha- 
bod," endeavored to bring the Chief to task for his conduct in the 
matter. The result of this was that W. F. Luxton was arrested, 
and brought before the Chief, who sentenced him to a fine of $200 
forthwith, or imprisonment until paid. Within 'ten minutes the 
sum of $200 was subscribed in the court, and Luxton was libera- 
ted. There is no doubt that the sympathy of the citizens was with 
Luxton on that occasion, as may be seen from the following list 
of subscribers who paid the $200 tine: — 

G. D. McVicar, Horace McDougall, 

W. W. Banning, McLenaghen & Malloch, 

Win. Alloway, H. Johnston, 

L. Hay ward, Colin Smith, 

D. L. Clink, S. Duffin, 

Alex Brown, J. S. McGinn, 

J. H. Bell, G. D. Northgraves, 

A. Blackburn, Jas. Stewart, 

F. E. Cornish, F. J. Washington, 



Dr. O'Donnell, 

C. W. Richardson, 
D..C. Kinsey, 
John Smith, 

W. R. Dick, 
Capt. Scott, 
T. Dunlop, 
J. Sutlierland, 
Alex. McDonald, 
R. Collingwood, 

A. McMieken, 

B. Sinclair, 
Gilbert McMicken, 
Hon. T. Howard, 
W. Bathgate, 

Dr. Turver, 
W. F. Hyman, 
W. Crawford, 
T. Hughes, 

D. Sinclair, 
W. B- Church, 
J. Milligan, 

S. Bishop, 

B. Devlin, 

H. McMicken, 

Snyder £ Anderson, 

Ceo. Turnbull, 

J. H. Kennedy, 

Ceo. Black, 

W. J. Piton, 

A. C. B. Banna tyne, 

Dr. C. J. Bird, 

J. F. Coldwell, 

J. O. Arinit, 

J. Hackitt, 

W. H. Thibadeau, 

L. Morneau, 

John Breden, 

M. Rocan, 


11. Strang, 

James Henderson, 

Wm. Laurens, 

J. Dawson, 

H. T. Shelton. 

Applications for charters were becoming thick again, about this 
time. The North West Loan & Investment Co., and the Ontario 
and Manitoba Landed Credit Co., applying; but where are they 
now ? The Independent Order of Odd Fellows leased Snyder & 
Anderson's tine hall, in Feb'y. '75, 

A number of flowing wells having been discovered near the 
limits of the city, it was suggested that they should be made use 
of in lieu of water- works, but it was never done. The city, about 
this time, sent Mayor. Kennedy and Mr. St. John to Ottawa as a 
delegation to represent the interests of Winnipeg in the Railway 
and Bridge question. A number of citizens from Winnipeg being 
in Ottawa at the time, they all co-operated in presenting the claims 
of this city before Hon. Alex. Mackenzie, premier. The following 
telegram, dated March 2nd, '75 was received: 


To the City Council and Newspapers. 

"Will you take fifty thousand dollars subsidy from the Domin- 
" ion Government, and build and maintain a passenger bridge across 
"the lied River ? and how much subsidy will you take, and build 
"a main bridge, suitable tor railway and team traffic across same? 
"also, will you grant free right of way through Winnipeg for Pem- 
"bina branch \ 

" Report will explain particulars. Consider carefully. Make 
"your best otVer for railway bridge. 

W. X. Kennedy, M. A. Girard, 

John Sutherland, W. II. Lyon, 

John Schultz, A. W. Burrows, 

M.St. John, Andrew Strang, 

David Young, James Trow, 

Jos. Ryan, Geo. 15. Elliott," 

How times are changed since then. We are now glad enough 
to be allowed to build the bridge at our own expense, without one 
cent of bonus. The Free Pvesn, however, of the 6th March, made 
the following remarks on the subject, which may be read with in- 
terest now : " We think the Dominion Government have no riyht 
" to ask the city to build a bridge across the river here. The Gov- 
ernment have always given it out as their intention to build 
"such bridge. Fifty thousand dollars was voted two years ago, 
"and it has been re-voted since. It is on the estimates of tins 
"year. The lowed cost, we believe, of'flie bridye would be two 
"hundred thousand, dollars." 

On receipt of the telegram we have already quoted, a meeting 
of the City Council was held, when the following resolution was 
unanimously carried: 'Moved by Alderman Lusted, seconded by 
"Alderman Logan, that the City Council give city bonds to extent 
"of ">0 per cent, (or one-half) the value of total cost of a main 
"bridge over the lied River opposite Winnipeg, suitable for both rail 
"and team traffic; also right of way and kind sufficient for station 
"accommodation for Pembina Branch C. 1*. R. enterin« and passing 
"through Winnipeg." At a subsequent meeting held by the citi- 
zens in the Court House, Gilbert McMicken in the chair, the fol- 
lowing resolution amongst others was proposed by Duncan Sinclair, 


seconded by John Higgins, and carried : " If necessary in order 
"to obtain the railway and station in Winnipeg, we will build the 
" bridge and give the right of way, the Dominion Government guar- 
anteeing the interest on debentures." But in spite of all this we 
didn't get the bridge. The arrival of Mennonites in the Province 
turned out a good thing for the merchants of Winnipeg. These 
new settlers came to this country well supplied with gold, and as 
they had to buy provisions, flour, cooking stoves, farming imple- 
ments, &c, their trade in Winnipeg amounted to a good deal. As 
soon, however, as they became settled in their reserve and began 
to cultivate their land, their trade fell away to nothing, and now 
we only see an occasional Mennonite on the streets. Mr. Hes- 
peler, the Dominion Immigration Agent in this city, has done much 
for this Province, and it is due to his exertions that the Mennon- 
ites came to settle in Manitoba. 

On Wednesday, 31st of March, 'To, the first session of the sec- 
ond Parliament of Manitoba was opened by His Hon. Lieut.-Gov. 
Morris. With the defeat of the Clarke government Hon. Dr. 
Bird was left out in the cold for the speakership, and Hon. Joseph 
Dubuc elected in his stead. At the same time word was received 
in Winnipeg that ex-Atttorney General Clarke was living in Cali- 
fornia. On the 1st of April, 75, the steamer Manitoba was 
launched at Moorhead. On the 31st of March Hon. A. G. B. 
Bannatyne was returned by acclamation as mend >er for Provencher, 
Mr. E. Tasse, his opponent, having retired from the contest at the 
last moment. 

The " Merchants' Transportation Co.," opposition to the " Kitt- 
son Line," was now in full operation ; a large warehouse (now called 
No. 6 warehouse) was built at the foot of Post Office Street, 
size 125x35 feet, and Mr. John Breden was the manager of the line 
at this end. The steamer Manitoba was succeeded by the Minnesota, 
the two finest boats on the river without doubt. Certainly the 
•' Merchants' Line " gave promise of being a very successful under- 
taking, but wires were even then working in St. Paul which were 
destined eventually to leave our merchants out in the cold, and 
place the steamers Manitoba and Minnesota as boats of the Kitt- 
son Line. The steamer Selkirk was the first boat in '75, and 
' H 


arrived here on the 30th of April. The first public spelling match 
in Winnipeg took place in Good Templars' Hall on Friday, 30th of 
April, Gilbert McMicken in the chair, and Thos. Nixon, sen., ref- 
eree. It was an amusing scene, and Consul Taylor and Sam. 
Jackson appeared to be the boss spellists on that occasion, the for- 
mer actually spelling " Brokovski " correctly, which it must be 
acknowledged, was a wonderful feat. 

The steamer Manitoba made her first appearance in this city on 
Friday, 21st of May, 75. She had on the trip 102 cabin passen- 
gers, 181 deck passengers, and 365 tons of freight. In the evening 
a number of citizens and ladies visited the new steamer for the pur- 
pose of presenting her with a set of colors, which was done with 
the usual speechifying, &c, and then the flag was hoisted, a gun 
fired, and the Manitoba steamed out from her wharf for a trip down 
the river, with a large crowd of people on board. Everyone was 
delighted with the boat, and to this day the Manitoba is a favorite. 
The Minnesota arrived for the first time on Sunday, the 23d of 
May, and also attracted a great deal of attention. Early in June, 
'75, our City Pmgineer, T. H. Parr, visited Chicago for the purpose 
of examining into the sewerage system of that city. The people 
of Winnipeg had resolved to have sewers. 

The first stroke of ill luck which happened to the Merchants' 
Line wasjhe sinking of the Manitoba by the International, of the 
Kittson Line, which happened on the 11th of June, '75. There 
were several conjectures atloat at the time in regard to the acci- 
dent, some even going so far as to say that it was intentional, but 
we think there is no doubt it happened through some error in judg- 
ment of the officers on the boats. It was, however, a serious blow 
to the Merchants' Line, one in fact from which it did not rightly 
recover. Hon. Dr. Bird removed his drug store about this time, 
from the house where Dr. Cowan lives at present, to the store now 
occupied by. J. F. Caldwell & Co. The first bookbinder in the city 
was P. G. Laurie, now of the Saskatchewan Herald, at Battleford, 
N. W. T. 

We now hear of our friend "George Firestine" introducing baths 
for the first time in connection with his tonsorial establishment. 
Fairbanks had a neat shop, but Firestine's outshone his altogether 


in the arrangement of the establishment. The " Bon Ton " is a 
favorite resort, and many a hair splitting argument takes place 
there. In June, '75, the Ontario Bank opened a branch office in 
this city in the building owned by Alex. McMicken, and which he 
had built for his own private banking business. The " Ontario " 
was started here under charge of Mr. Holland, but soon afterwards 
Mr. George Brown, the present manager, arrived, and assumed con- 
trol. The first hearse brought into Winnipeg belonged to William 
Harvey. Holy Trinity had now become too small for its congrega- 
tion, and accordingly steps were taken to build a larger church. 
The contract for the building at present used was let in June, '75, 
to Bell & Johnston. Churches were on the increase in Winnipeg 
at this time, for on Sunday, June 20th, '75, the Baptist Chapel 
was dedicated. Mr. W. It. Dick presented this church with a fine 
organ. Mr. D. M. Walker was appointed City Solicitor in the 
summer of '75, which position he has retained ever since. The 
grasshoppers visited the Province in clouds during 1875, and 
infested the streets of the city to the great discomfort of our citi- 
zens. One calculating individual estimated that there were at one 
time 1,207,360,000,000 hoppers in the Province, but we cannot 
vouch for the accuracy of his statement, as we did not count them. 
The City Hall and offices were removed in June, '75, from the 
building now occupied by Lyster's clothing store, to the upper fiat 
of Snyder & Anderson's building. The steamer Sivallow arrived 
in the summer of '75, and was purchased by Major Morrice, who, 
however, did not run her for any lenth of time. The Government, 
in order to meet the requirements of the travelling public had 
arranged to place a steam ferry between St. Boniface and Winni- 
peg, and Mr. J. W. McLane, who secured the contract, ran a steam 
ferry boat for the first time across the Bed Biver in the summer of 
'75. It was considered a great boon to the public. The first 
instalment of McKenzie's celebrated steel rails arrived here by the 
Cheyenne on Sunday, 27th of June, '75. 



City Assessment— Van Pexke! aer — "Baby Jim"— The "Colville"— City 
Bonds— Rival Banks— Stage Company— Mi:. Cuddy— Dodd & Co.— 0. F. 
Cakeuthees — Sewers— Moberly k McLennan — Indignation Meeting 
—Hospital— City Hall— Ceremonials— Mu. Geo. Brown— The "Mag- 
oik"— Hon. Mi:. Letki.liei: — Merchants' Transportation Link — Ku- 
mors — A Rapacious Lion — Petitions — The " Swallow " — Bridge — Post 
■ Office — Bannatynk's Liberality — Masonic — Imports and Exports — 
Canada Pacific Hotel — E. McCoskrie — Holy Trinity — Key. 0. IToetin 
— Ashdown's Block — Merchants' Bank— Mr. Duncan McArthur — *' In 
Pkkils of Robbers" — Charles Daly — City Hall — Tim Civic Purse — 
J. W. Winnett — Macaulay's Mill— In the Ice — Interrupted Naviga- 
tion — Mayo ii Kennedy — Skating Rink — Prudhomme — Dramatic — The 
Hammer — Tin: Knife — Davis' Hotel — Financial Winnipeg. 

The city assessment in 1875 was as follows: 

Value of real property $1,808,567 

'• personal property * 801,1212 


The total population (assessed) was estimated at 3,031, and peo- 
ple not assessed, 2,000, so that the actual population was over 
5,000 ; pretty good considering that in 1869 we had hardly 100. 
Amongst the heaviest ratepayers then, Hudson Bay Co. summed 
up S5 l J5,312, Bannatyne £84,225, McDerniott 878,876, Maeaulay 
$44,500, and Alex. Logan $53,000. 

The steamer Swo.Uovj did not remain long in the possession of 
Major Morrice, for early in July it passed into the hands of J. W. 

And now "Van" re-appears on the scene. Mr. Carpenter, the 
stage and express agent in Winnipeg, having heen removed to a 
post east, Van was sent here in his place. It seems our genial 
express agent went by the name of " Baby Jim " in Moorhead. 
To judge from his size he must have been reared on good sound 

The steamer Chief Commissioner, built by the Hudson Bay Co. 
for Lake Winnipeg, was converted into a floating wharf at the 


Stone Fort, and her machinery transferred into the Oolville, a new 
boat built in '75 at Grand Forks. The Colville proved a success, 
and is still running on Lake 'Winnipeg, sometimes paying this city 
a visit. 

The $200,000 bonds of the city having been disposed of, some 
SI 80,000 was realized on their sale. Of this amount it was 
deemed advisable to invest §100,000, as that sum Mould not be 
required for a year. The Ontario and the Merchants' Banks came 
into competition for the use of this money, and considerable feel- 
ing was evinced by some parties on the subject. The Merchants' 
Bank had taken some trouble to have the city bonds placed on the 
market, and although there was discontent at the figures realized, 
it must not be forgotten that the city gained a great point by having 
its bonds taken hold of at so early a date in its history. In fact 
there is no doubt the city was under obligations to a certain extent 
to the Merchants' Bank. Probably, on this account, the offer of 
Mr. McArthur for the loan of §100,000 was accepted, although 
there was little, if any, difference between his proposition and that 
of Mr. Holland, of the Ontario Bank. At all events, this iinancial 
matter created a tempest in a tea-pot, and as each bank had its 
friends in the Council, our aldermen nearly came to blows in the 
discussion. The stage company, during the summer of '75, com- 
menced to run night and day, making the trip between "Winnipeg 
and Moorhead in thirty-six hours. Mr. 1'. Guilmette, having been 
in business on Post Office Street for some time, Mr. Cuddy (now 
of Cuddy & Smith,) entered into partnership with him, and for 
some time the business felt the influence of Mr. Cuddy's energy 
and tact. About this time, we hear of l)odd opening a boot and 
shoe store next to McLenaghen &Malloch'son Main Street. Mr. 
McDonald, who soon after associated himself with Mr Dodd, is a 
pushing, energetic man of business, and l'odd is a thorough work- 
man, and well posted in his line. From a small beginning, the 
firm of Dodd & Co. has risen to the front rank among the mer- 
chants of Winnipeg. We will have occasion to refer to this house 
again. David McArthur, for some reason, having resigned the 
agency of the Provincial Fire Insurance Co., in 187-3, O. F. Car- 
ruthers took his place. By steady attention and close application, 


and by looking out for the main chance, Mr. Carruthers has suc- 
ceeded in obtaining several other agencies for first-class insurance 
companies, and he is now engaged in the most extensive insurance 
business in the Province, and finds it more profitable than running 
the Gazette, which soon after the departure of ex-attorney-general 
Clarke, its patron — ceased to exist. The city, having decided to have 
sewers, the council took steps to let the work out by contract ; but 
at this stage of our city's progress, it was almost impossible for 
any public affair to be conducted without a mass meeting and a 
row ! It appears that the tender of Moberley & McLennan for 
the sewer contract, although the highest, had been accepted, and 
the people wanted to know the reason why. A mass meeting was 
therefore called in the open air, at the corner of Main Street and 
Portage Avenue, (the latter being called Assinniboine Street at 
that time,) and a large turn-out of our citizens assembled. 
There was considerable bitterness shown by some of the 
speakers, but it was evident that the crowd was not in 
favor of Moberly & McLennan, as will be seen by the fol- 
lowing resolutions : " Moved by James H. Ashdown, seconded by 
"J. Y). More, that after having heard the explanations of the alder- 
" men who voted for awarding the sewer contract to Moberly & Mc- 
lennan, we do not consider they have had sufficient ground for 
" voting away $10,000 of the people's money unnecessarily, and that 
" they have violated the trust reposed in them." " Moved by Hon. 
"K. A. Davis, seconded by Andrew Strang, that the Mayor be 
"requested not to ratify the sewer contract awarded to Moberly & 
"McLennan, and this meeting pledges itself to support him in that 
" course." 

The contract for the erection of the Winnipeg General Hospital 
was awarded in August to 11. I). Patterson. The lot on which it 
was to be built was the joint gift of Messrs. A. McPermott, sen., 
and Hon. A. (r. B. Banna tyne. In the meantime work on the 
sidewalks of the city was progressing at a wonderful rate, and cer- 
tainly the Council of '75 did not allow the grass to grow under 
their feet. Our readers will remember the incident already record- 
ed, when the floor of lied River Hall gave way under the weight 
of an audience; we now find the same thing occurring at Snyder & 


Anderson's in '75, when the floor nearly gave way at a meeting of 
Council. The want of a City Hall was much felt at that time, and 
the City Council was hurrying on the erection of one as fast as 
possible. The location chosen for the future City Hall was in the 
centre of a large creek, or gully, just north of Wright's block, the 

bed of which was used in forming the cellar. At the present day 
there is no sign of a creek ever having been there, as it has been 
filled in since by the Board of Works. When the foundation of 
the City Hall was being built, grave fears were entertained that it 
would prove unsound. The. contractors, however, were very care- 
ful in their work, and as we all know the building has stood the 
test ever since without giving way. The architect was Mr. Thus. 
Inglis, and the contractor Mr. W. H. Burekholder, who, we are 
sorry to relate, lost so heavily in the undertaking that at the finish 
he found himself a ruined man. Tuesday, the 17th of August, 
being a civic holiday, the laying of the comer stone of the City 
Hall took place in presence of a large assemblage of people. The 
followinc' societies took part in the ceremony: L. 0. L. 1,307 and 
1,352 Grand Orange Lodge of Manitoba, Good Tempalrs, Inde- 
pendent Order and Band of Hope, British Order, one lodge, I. 0. 
O. F., Manitoba Lodge No. 1, North Star Lodge No. 2, Harmony 
Encampment, Military Band, A. F. and A. M„ Prince Rupert's 
Lodge, Ancient Landmark Lodge, St. John's Lodge, Grand Lodge 
of Free Masons. 

Speeches were made by Chief Justice Wood, American Consul 
Taylor, and Hon. R. A. Davis, and the ceremony of laying the cor- 
ner stone was performed by Grand-Master the Rev. Dr. Clarke, as- 
sisted by the grand officers. The casket contained the following- 
articles : — One pound note, H. B. Co., issued 1858 ; five shilling 
note, H. B. Co., issued 1866 ; a Merchants' bank bill S5, dated 
2nd January, 1873, and forms of drafts on New York, Montreal 
and St. Paul, $1,000 each (Merchants' Bank) ; Dominion note, one 
dollar, issued 1870 ; Dominion note twenty-five cents, issued 1870; 
Dominion silver coins, 50, 25, 10, and 5 cents respectively ; British 
silver coins, 3d. 5d. Is. 2s. and 3s.; Russian coins of 15 and 20 
kopeks, brought into the province by Menonite immigrants ; Prus- 
sian coin of 10 kreutzers, brought in by same ; and a number of 


copper coins of various nationalities and dates. Photographs of 
the Mayor, Council, and civic officers of the city of Winnipeg, for 
1874, of the Mayor, Council, and civic officers of the city of Win- 
nipeg, for 1875 ; of the tire brigade of the City of Winnipeg, for 
1875; of Point Douglas from the Court-house, taken 1874; of the 
same looking north , with market building foundation, August, 
1874; of the east ward, north of Brown's bridge.taken 1875; of the 
west ward, north of Brown' s bridge, taken 1875 ; of Main Street 
looking south from Court-house, taken spring, 1374; of the same, 
looking south from Court-house, taken 1875; of part of east ward, 
St. Boniface in the distance, 1875 ; first arrival of the Mennonite 
immigrants by International, 1874 ; Main Street from opposite 
Schultz Street, looking math, 1874; Grace Church after comple- 
tion, 1871 ; Winnipeg water-works, " James Irwin," 1871; pon- 
toon bridge ; Fort Garry and Warehouse, from south side of the 
River Assiniboine, 1874; J. L. Reid's arrival from the west by 
dog trains, 1873 ; St. Boniface, from west side of river, 1872; 
three photographs of Manitoba scourge, "grasshoppers," 1875; 
Louis Kiel and.his cabinet, 1869-70. The charter of incorporation 
of the city of Winnipeg, 187". ; amended charter of incorporation 
of the city of Winnipeg, 1875; by-law No. 0, of the city of Win- 
nipeg, "Bales and Order," 1875; Statutes of Manitoba, 1871 to 
1875 ; prize list, first Annual Exhibition Provincial Agricultural 
and Industrial Society of Manitoba, 1872; prize list first Annual 
Exhibition of the County of Selkirk Agricultural Society, 1875; 
Winnipeg as it is in 1874, and as it was in 1860, by Elliot ; Man- 
itoba and the North-West of the Dominion, in English, "Spence ;" 
Manitoba and the North-West of the Dominion, in French, 
"Spence;" report of the Superintendent of Schools, Manitoba, 
1875-; laws of the Governor and Council of Assiniboia, 1802 ; a 
copy of the Quebec Gazette, printed by Brown & Gilmore, on the 
21st June, 1704, 1st number ; a copy of the first document printed 
in Manitoba, by the Bev. Mr.Corbett, at Headingley, in 1870, en- 
titled, " A few reasons ha- a Crown Colony;" a copy of the Nev) 
Nation, containing a correct verbatim report of the first convention 
of 40 representatives of the French and English people of Assini- 
boia, to form a " Bill of rights," &e., February 11th, 1870 ; copies 


of the Manitoba Gazette, of 4th and 11th May, 1872, containing 
reports of public meetings relative to the post-office site, and other, 
important items ; copy of the L ibe rat, of the 4th May, 1872, on 
same subjects; copies of the North-Wester, of 9th and loth Aug- 
ust, 1875 ; copies of the Standard, 1st and last issues, 1875; 
copies weekly Free Press, 14th August, 187.", copies daily Free 
Pres-% 7th July, 1874, ami 10th August, 1875; copies of News 
Letter, 1879 Stud 1871 ; map or plan of the City of Winnipeg, 
drawn and compiled by J. D. Parr, 1874; voters' list of first muni- 
cipal election, 1S74 ; voters' list of second municipal election, 
1875 ; list of members and ohicers of the Council of the City of 
Winnipeg, 1875, copy of this document ; a bottle containing sam- 
ples of the scourge of Manitoba " grasshoppers " in spirits; also a 
box containing heads of wheat from a field partially destroyed by 
grasshoppers, 1875. 

Mr. George BroAvn took charge of the Ontario Bank on the 21st 
of August, '75, Mr. Holland returning to Canada t<» resume his 
duties as Inspector. Young Men's Christian Association at this 
time had a Free Reading Room over the telegraph office, corner 
Main and Notre Dame Streets. The tug Maggie being too small 
for the river trade, Mr. Roblin, the owner, had a barge seventy 
feet long constructed, into which he placed the Maggie's machin- 
ery. This was the first instalment of the steamer Keeivatin. The 
survey for the Pembina Branch 7 line was carried across Red 
River in August, 1875, the crossing being at the Bouvette prop- 
erty on the south side of Point Douglas proper, or half way be- 
tween whsre Radiger & Erb's distillery stands to-day, and John 
Higgins' residence. Hon. Mr. Lctellier, the recently dismissed 
Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, visited this city during the sum- 
mer of '75. He gave it publicly as his opinion that the crossing 
of the Pembina Branch at Winnipeg would do more to advance 
the country than any other route, but it seems he was unable to 
induce Hon. Alex. McKenzie to think the same. Mi'. S. R. Cham- 
bers opened his biscuit and confectionery manufactory in Septem- 
ber, '75, in the same building where it is to-day. 

Rumors began now to float about the Merchant's Transportation 
Line, and a suspicion arose that the American directors were 



coquetting with Mr. Kittson in St. Paul. Mr. John Breden denied 
all knowledge of such a state of things, but still considerable 
uneasiness existed in the minds of the shareholders here. Soon 
after this the Manitoba was seized at the suit of McMicken & 
Taylor for a sum of 81,700. At about the same time the Minne- 
sota was taken in charge by Sheriff Blanchard, at Moorhead. 
Things began to look bad, and evidently there was a screw loose 
somewhere. The City Hall now appeared to be a bottomless pit 
into which the people's money was being poured, and not content 
with using up the whole of the appropriation for its erection, the 
City Council were obliged to take money set apart for water works 
and use it to finish the Hall; $15,000 was used in this way, and 
still the cry was for more. A spasmodic effort of the Board of 
Trade was heard from about this time. At a meeting of the Board 
'on Wednesday, Sept. 8th, Dr. Schultz in the chair, it was moved by 
E. Gerrie, seconded by John Villiers, " that Messrs. Ashdown, Lux- 
"ton and Dr. O'Donnell. and the mover and seconder, be and are 
"hereby appointed a committee to draft and forward a communica- 
tion to Hon. Alex. McKenzie, Minister of Public Works and 
"Premier of the Dominion, urging the claims of the people of this 
" Province to have the Pembina Branch of the Canada Pacific Rail- 
" road located on the west side of Bed River, with a crossing, free." 
A widening of .Main street took place in the fall of 75, and Badi- 
ger's building had to be moved back several feet into the position 
it at present occupies. The steamer Sioallmu having returned to 
its " first love " and builder, Capt. Flannigan, that gentleman, with 
his usual spirit of enterprise, removed a number of boulders ami 
built a wing dam at the St. Andrew's Rapids, in order lo enable 
his steamers to run during the summer between Stone Fort and 
Winnipeg. Macaulay's mills ran night and day during the sum- 
mer of 75, and early in September two million feet of lumber had 
been sawn by the firm since the commencement of the season. 
Another mass meeting was held in the Court House at Winnipeg 
on Tuesday, Sept. 14, 75, to urge upon the Dominion Government 
the necessity for a bridge. Several important resolutions were 
passed, and amongst the proposers and seconders we find the names 
of Dr. O'Donnell, 1). U. Campbell, Rev. Mr. Bryce, Alderman Vil- 


liers, F. E. Cornish, Frank Lynn, Dr. Benson, Arch. Wright, \V. F. 
Luxton, W. Clarke, G. B. Spencer, T. Lusted, Stewart Mulvey and 
Thomas Gravely. The steamers Manitoba and Minnesota had 
stopped running, the former being detained at Moorhead and the 
latter at Winnipeg. 

The Custom House and Lands Office having been built at the 
southern end of the city, the people had the satisfaction of securing 
the Post Office in a more central position. Mr. Bannatyne, with 
his well known liberality, having given a lot of land for the pur- 
pose, as a free gift to the Crown, the citizens of Winnipeg have to 
thank him for the Post Office being where it is to-day. Probably 
mass meetings, resolutions, &c., had also a little to do in the mat- 
ter. Messrs. Ashdown and P. Strang having been appointed a 
deputation to go to St. Paul and look into the affairs of the Mer- 
chants' Line, returned in the latter end of September, and reported 
the affairs of the company in a very complicated state, so much so 
that the boats would not run again that season. This was prac- 
tically the end of the Merchants' Line, as Mr. N. W. Kittson 
bought out the whole concern some time afterwards. A number 
of the smaller shareholders in this city lost all, or nearly all they 
paid in, while some of the larger stockholders afterwards became 
shareholders in the Kittson's Line, thus virtually taking a hand in 
the monopoly which they had previously been crying down for 
such a length of time. 

A council of Royal and Select Master Masons was organized in 
Winnipeg on Thursday, 23d of Sept., 75, by P. M. Comp, James 
B. Nixon, Grand Recorder of Grand Council of Ontario. 

Mr. Thomas Watt, civil engineer, arrived here in Sept., 75, and 
was for some time engaged by the Dominion Government on the 
Canada Pacific Railroad. A hose tower was erected at the engine 
house on Post Office Street, which gave the place more the appear- 
ance of a shot manufactory than anything else. A lire bell was 
placed in position, and everything appeared snug fur a fire alarm. 
On the 1st of October, 75, at a meeting of the Council it \\;\.i 
resolved, "That the Council is of opinion that the local government 
"ought to convene the Legislature and take such steps by legisla- 
tion on the situation as will cause the Dominion Government to 


" pause in the course they have taken in respect of the railway 
" bridge, and further, that a committee of this Council be appointed 
"to wait upon the local government to ascertain what they intend 
"doing in relation to railway matters." These resolutions were 
caused by the apparent design of the Ottawa authorities to give 
Winnipeg the go-by in respect to the railway bridge. 

Imports at the port of Winnipeg for the year, ending :30th of 
June, '75, was SI, 243,300, not including the goods brought from 
Canada. The amount of duties collected was §171,430.70, and 
the exports for the same time was 8588,958. 

The contract for taking down and rebuilding the southern wall 
of the Canada Pacific Hotel was let to E. McCoskrie, who went to 
work and in a short time had the hotel as good as new, an under- 
taking requiring no little skill, and reflecting handsomely on Mr. 
M Coskrie as an export and practical man. The building was fur- 
nished throughout by the proprietors, and soon after leased to J. 
Haverty for a term of years, and ever since, the Pacific Hotel has 
ranked amongst the best houses in the city. The building of the 
present Holy Trinity was being completed when it was resolved to 
have a regular pastor for the church. Several names were men- 
tioned, amongst which were those of the Itev. Messrs. Dr. Clarke and 
tv 0. Fortin, of Montreal. The choice of the church was finally given in 
favor of Mr. Fortin^ although Dr. Clarke had been officiating for 
some time. On Wednesday, 27th of < October, therefore, His Lord- 
ship the Metropolitan of Rupert's Land, appointed Mi*. Fortin, and 
that gentleman soon after arrived to take charge of his cure, since 
which time, by his zeal and earnestness, both in the pulpit and 
among his ougregation, he has deservedly earned the respect and 
esteem of the people of Winnipeg. " Mr. dames H. Ashdown fin- 
ished his tine brick corner block in Oct., '75. The dimensions of 
the buildings were 72x28, three stories high. The ceilings of the 
first, second and third floors were respectively 13, 11, 12 feet high, 
and there was a good cellar feet deep. The building had a very 
handsome front, and the foundation was carefully protected by 
piles being driven in before the stone wall of the cellar was laid. 
This fine store cost upwards of §15,000, ami is still one of the 
ornaments of the city. \)n the 2oth of October the Merchants' 


Bank moved into their new premises, which they still occupy. 

This building is one of the finest and most substantial in the 
city, built of white brick and faeed with red stone, it presents a 
very solid appearance, and in point of architectural beauty, is sec- 
ond to none in Winnipeg. The fittings inside are handsomly made 
and planned with all the modern improvements and accessories to 
the business of banking. A large vault is placed in the bank, 
made by the Hall Safe and Lock Co. The two upper Hats are 
occupied by Mr. 1). McArthur, the manager, and are finished in 
the finest style. When we look at this building, and remem- 
ber the coining of Mi 1 . D. McArthur to establish the bank, we are 
truly astonished at the success which has attended Ms efforts. We 
remember meeting Mr. McArthur on his way to this country at 
Grand Forks, in 1872, when staging to Fort Garry was quite an 
undertaking, especially when handicapped with valuables. Mr, 
McArthur, it appears, had valuables to a large amount, and in pas- 
sing along the prairie near the Grand Forks Stage Station, was 
overtaken by two men whose movements were very suspicious. 
Grand Forks, at that time, consisted of only one or two houses 
and there were some very loose characters hanging about the vici- 
nity. These two men kept McArthur in view for sometime but 
probably coming to the conclusion that an attack was useless 
thev disappeared. Mr. McArthur went on his way rejoicing that 
night, and arrived safely in Winnipeg. Immediately on his arri- 
val he leased a frame building, near where Dufferin Hall is to-day, 
and having placed some rude counters, and fitted up the premises 
to resemble a bank as much as possible, he commenced the Mer- 
chants' Bank business in Winnipeg, on the 12th December, 1872. 
He had an able and popular assistant in Mr. Daly. Mr. Mc- 
Arthur was a careful manager, and although the bank has been 
from its commencement, identified financially, more or less, with 
all the public and private enterprises of this city and the province, 
it is safe to say that there are few agencies of the Merchants' Bank 
that have paid the institution better than the Winnipeg braneh. 
The City of Winnipeg and the Province of Manitoba are certainly 
indebted to this Merchants' Bank. In connection with the City 
Hall, it may be interesting to give the following particulars taken 


from a report of Messrs. Lecourt and McCoskrie, architects, in 
Oct. 1875 :— 

Excavation, 1,172 cubic yards @ 60c 8703 20 

Concrete, 262 cubic yards, @ 823 0,049 00 

Rubble masonry, 6 67 1 perches @ $9 6,097 50 

Cut stone work, 1,824 superficial feet, @ $3 5,472 00 

Brick work, 480,487 bricks, @ 830 per 1,000 14,415 00 


10,524 feet oak, @ §50 526 20 

9,297 feet pine, @ $35 515 39 

29,753 feet pine, @ 825 743 82 

40 pairs sashes and frames, @ $9 360 00 

3 door frames @ 810 30 00 

14 coverings in groins, (o 85 70 00 

Iron Work 335 00 

835,217 11 

This was the cost of the building up to 13 Oct. '75, when it was 
in an unfinished state. 

Macaulay's mills shut down in '75, on 27th October, after hav- 
ing sawn 3,340,000 feet of lumber during the season — pretty good 
for a country where some people say there is no wood. Mr. J. W. 
Winnet about this time, Nov., '75 moved into a shop (which has 
since been torn down) near where the "Severe House " stands at 
present. Mr. Winnett commenced business in '73 in a small way, 
in a shanty, on the prairie, back of the city, and by hard 
work and strict attention to business he has built up the fine estab- 
lishment over which he presides to-day. He remained in the small 
premises on Main street, which w,e have just mentioned, until he 
moved into his present tine store south of the Merchants' Bank. 
Navigation closed rather suddenly in '75, and only one of the 
boats of the Kittson line (the International,) was able to reach 
winter quarters before the river was frozen over. The Dakota was 
caught at Scratching River with a cargo. The Cheyenne, also 
loaded, was frozen in at Emerson*. The Alpha only got a few 
miles north of Grand Forks 'with her load, and the Minnesota, 
with no cargo, had to winter at Pembina. A number of flat boats 


were also caught in the ice, and in consequence a large amount of 
teaming was done during the winter of '75-76. 

Mr. N. Kennedy, Mayor of the city in 75, on his return from 
^Ottawa, where he had been in the interest of the city, made his 
report to the City Council in November, and the following is an 
extmct from it: "We are safe in assuming, I think, that the Pa-. 
"citic Railroad will not be continued west of lied River for some 
"years, in fact the Premier in his Sarnia speech said so, conse- 
" quently the bridge on the main line will not be built, as it would 
"not be required until the road is continued west. In the mean- 
time the Pembina Branch is being proceeded with to a point op- 
" posite the city, and it is hoped that perhaps next fall we may 
" have railway communication with the south. Our city will be 
"rapidly growing in population and resources. The Dominion 
" Government is willing to assist us in building our railroads from 
" Winnipeg to the south and west, including probably the railroad 
" bridge at the city. I think we will have a bridge at Winnipeg 
" before there is one north of us. In the meantime the wagon 
"bridge should be built. It is thought by engineers that a bridge 
" can be built for the sum set down in the estimate ($50,000) ; if 
" not, I have no doubt, if our members that are in the House of 
"Commons and Senate use their influecce for that purpose, the 
" government will double the amount, placing it at what it orig- 
" inally was. Let us be true to ourselves, work together unitedly, 
" and we need have no fear for the future prosperity of the citv. 
"No influence that can be brought to bear will prevent Winnipeg 
"from being one of the principal cities of the Dominion. A lead- 
" ing and far-seeing member of the Montreal Board of Trade, the 
"other day in writing about Winnipeg, said that in 1900 the pop- 
ulation of Winnipeg would probabjy be 200,000, and I do not 
"think he was far astray. Nature has done a great deal for Win- 
" nipeg ; let us do the rest." 

The " Holy Trinity " of the present time was dedicated on the 
12th of November, 1S75, by His Lordship the Bishop of Rupert's 
Land. There was a very large attendance of people present, and 
the services morning and evening were conducted by the following 
clergymen : Rev. Archdeacon Cowley, Rev. Canons Grisdale an4 



O'Meara, ltev. Messrs. Pritchard, Beck, Pinkham, Young, Wilson 
and Fortin. The latter gentleman was at the same time inducted 
us incumbent of the church, he having come from Montreal for 
that purpese. The church was 80x40 feet, with a 22 foot ceiling; 

the chancel on the north side was :>Gxl8, and the vestry 18x9, 
with a store room of similar size. The seats were made to accom- 
modate 500 people, and were of neat design, with book racks and 
kneeling benches, and the whole inside appearance of the church 
was tasty but very plain; in fact there appeared to have been no 
attempt at architectural beauty in the designing of the church, 
either inwardly or outwardly. 

It was now resolved to have a skating rink near the centre of 
the city, instead of upon the river, and accordingly a company of 
gentlemen put their heads together, and the result of their "deliber- 
ations was the large and commodious Victoria Rink, now used as a 
'drill shed. When the seats in Holy Trinity were sold by auction 
in November, the total sale amounted to 82,010, the highest bids 
running up to as much as 8110 for a pew. 

Our readers will remember our description of Monchamp's start 
in business here, given in the first chapter of this book. Well, in 
1875 he opened the present tine Hotel du Canada, one of the best 
houses at present in the city, and since Monchamp's retirement 
from business, kept by the hospitable and cheery minded i'rud- 

About this time " Brown's bridge " was removed, and the gully 
filled in, which was a decided improvement to Main street. 

The building now known as the " Lome House," but which was 
built by Mr. Hespeler as a " Mennonite Hotel," was in '75 con- 
verted into a " Theatre Royal," and a series of performances were 
given in that " temple of art " by a local troupe during the winter 
of '75 and '70. The Victoria Skating Rink was opened on Wed- 
nesday, Nov. 24th, '75, and an immense crowd of people rilled the 
building to participate. % 

Mr. J. MT McGregor (now of the Free Press) Mas the first 
licensed auctioneer in the city of Winnipeg, and Arch. McNee was 
the successor of Mr. W. Alloway in the veterinary profession. 


The Davis Hotel property was advertised for sale cheap in 75, and 
to-day you could hardly buy it for any money. 

The report of the Finance Committee of the City Council in 
Dec, 75, showed that the following disbursements had been made 
up to that time : 

Sewers ? 4,100 00 

Fire Department 18,283 39 

Market, City Hall,&c $15,578 68 

From Water Works appropriation 12,790 95 

Spent on market 328,369 73 

Opening streets 3,158 03 

Grading streets 18,610 99 

Sidewalks 17,446 77 

$89,968 89 




Hoist with Hi6 own Petard — Destruction of Firk Engine and Hall— An 
Unprofitable Investment— $15,000— A New Engine— A List of Dea- 
cons — Prospective Ruins — A Bucket Brigade — Aldermen Petty 

Larceny — Arrest of Legal Luminaries — Narrow Escapes Execu- 
tion of McIvor— A Green Hangman— Police— A Kowdy Chief— Cap- 
ture— Dismissal— Chief of Police Murray — Pax Vobiscum Ash- 
down's Hospitality— Local Legislature— Terpsichorean— Higgins, 
Young and Peebles — Abolition of Legislative Council — Loaves and 
Fishes — Temperance— Music— Freight— The Civic Squirt —Street 

Christening — North- West Trade — Cricket — Cold Water Electric 

"Telegraph Flatters "—Swan River City— Alderman Yilliers— 
Red River Transportation Co.— Lepink and Nault— The Gibbet- 
Death of Louis Thomas— Early Navigation — Sewers — City Cham- 
berlain — Death of Mr. Ramsay — Workman's Union R. Gerrie & 

Co. — Wholesale Dry Goods — Rev. Geo. Young — Winnipeg at Wim- 
bledon — Begg's Gait— Cuddy k Smith— Growth of Winnipkg Death 

of Dr. Bird — Ross, Ross, k Killam — Steamboat Collision. 

Christmas morning, 1ST-"*, was a memorable one for Winnipeg. 
We have already described how the council purchased a lot and 
engine-house on Post Office Street, from A. McDermott, sen., and 
how they erected a hose towei on the same. We have also related 
how the city, at a great cost, purchased a steam tire engine, &c. 
Well, on Christmas moraing,"1875, the whole of this tine outfit was 
destroyed by the very element it was supposed to conquer. The 
fire, it is said, originated from a defective stove-pipe, and the 
draught of air passing up the hose tower, caused the flames to 
spread so rapidly that there was not sufficient time to <nxe the 
alarm and save the fire engine. In fact, the men in charge of the 
engine house had hardly time to save their lives, their hair and 
clothing being singed as it was. So quickly did the fire do its 
work, in this instance, that very few citizens were aware of what 
had happened till it was all over. The loss to Winnipeg was about 
SI 5,000, beside which it left the city without proper protection 
from fire. On Saturday, the 25th Dee., the council had a special 
meeting, at which it was decided to order by telegraph another 
Silsby engine. The following message was therefore sent : — 
ISilsby Manufacturing Co., Seneca Fulls. 






" Can you ship at once a No. 1 steam fire engine complete, with 
" 2,000 feet carbolized rubber hose— no reels. Our engine des- 
« troyed by fire ; under circumstances, will you deduct agent's 
" commission, and give six months' time from date of shipment. 
" If terms suit, ship immediately, and make freight contract to 
" Moorhead, care Minnesota Stage Co. Agent there. 
To this telegram, answer was received as follows : — 
" Yes, will ship at once, as you direct. — Silsby Manufacturing Co." 
The engine destroyed Mas called the " Assiniboine," and it is 
said was the second one ever destroyed by tire. 

At Knox Church on Sunday, 25th of December, '75, Lieutenant 
Governor Morris, Rev. Messrs. Bryce and Hart, and Messrs. Gil- 
bert McMicken, Walter Laidlaw and D. U. Campbell were ordained 
elders of the church. We have already mentioned that fears were 
entertained lest the foundation of the City Hall should turn out 
bad. Well, on Sunday, 25th of December, 75, the building hav- 
ing settled a little, a crack was observed in the south wall. The 
fate of the Canada Pacific Hotel then loomed up, and crowds of our 
citizens visited the City Hall for the purpose of seeing and giving 
vent to their feelings on the insecurity of our market, &c The 
civic elections were then pending, and occasion was taken by some 
to make the crack in the wall an election cry against the Mayor 
and some of the aldermen, who were seeking re-election. How- 
ever, the whole thing was a tempest in a teapot, as the City Hall 
is standing and perfectly sound at the present time. In the face 
of there being no fire engine in the city, A. J. Symonds came out 
with a suggestion to have a " Bucket Brigade." 

The civic elections for 1870 took place on Monday, Jan. 3, and 
ended up by a scrimmage at the East Ward polling place, in which 
the poll books were stolen. The result of Monday's polling in 
the othei wards was as follows : 


W. N. Kennedy. A. W. Burrows. 

South Ward 39 52 

West " 79 65 

North " 68 63 


186 180 




South Ward. West Ward. 

W. F. AIL, way 95 T. P. Roblin 125 

A. McMicken 95 Arch. Wright 121 

W. Hespeler 93 J. Villiers 91 


Alex, Logan 129 

T. Lusted 116 

W. (J. Fonseca 77 

In the East Ward, about five minutes before the close of the 
polls, on Mr. Macaulay's voting for his partner, K. W. Jarvis, sev- 
eral of the persons present raised a disturbance, during which the 
lamp was blown out, the stove pipe knocked down, and the poll 
book stolen. The poll was then closed. The next day the elec- 
tion in the East Ward was continued, with the following result: 

For Mayor W. N. Kennedy 09 A. W. Burrows 14 

J. Breden, for alderman 104 

W. W. Banning, " " 88 

E. W. Jarvis " " 84 

Mayor Kenned)' was therefore declared duly elected for a second 

term of office. 

On the night of Monday, several individuals, amongst whom were 

F. E. Cornish, W. B. Thibaudeau, J. R. Cameron, and, it is sup- 
posed, Geo. B. Elliot, visited the house of Mr. Huggard, the re- 
turning officer for the west ward, and after indulging in a scrim- 
mage, during which some hard blows were given, walked off with 
the poll-book. Messrs. Cornish and Thibaudeau were arrested the 
next day, and warrants were issued for Cameron and Elliott, but 
neither of them could be found. They left the country to avoid 
arrest, and have never since returned to it. They were both 
newspaper men. Messrs. Cornish and Thibaudeau were commit- 
ted for trial.. They were tried in February, and fined ?20 each 
and costs. 

On Friday, the 7th January, '76, the second execution in Win- 
nipeg took place ; this time the unfortunate man being Mc Ivor, for 
the murder of Geo. Atkinson, at Beaver Creek, near Fort Ellice, 
North West Territories. The executioner, whoever he was, bung- 


led his terrible work, and Mclvor, whose neck was not broken by 
the fall, (the noose having slipped,) died by strangulation. We 
have neglected to mention the police force of the city, because up 
to the time that 1). 1>. Murray became chief, the management of 
the force was a disgrace to the town. The first chief of police was 
one Ingram, who was perhaps the greatest rowdy in Winnipeg 
at the time, and who under cloak of his authority, engaged 
in all kinds of dissipation. Finally the present chief, 
then lieutenant in the force, on raiding a den in the western por- 
tion of the city, captured Ingram and took him prisoner, when, to 
the delight of every respectable citizen, the Council were obliged 
to dismiss him. Murray was then made Chief of Police, and from 
that day to this the force has gradually improved under Ins man- 
agement until now we can boast of as tine a body of police otticers 
as can be found in any city of the Dominion. On the evening of 
the 14th of January, 1870, Mi'. Jas. H. Ashdown entertained for 
the first time, his employees at a supper given at the Union. Mr. 
Ashdown ever since has entertained his employees at least once a 
year, a very praiseworthy habit of our enterprising hardware mer- 
chant, and one that does credit to his heart. We recommend the 
custom to others of our merchants; it would pay them, as kind- 
ness goes a long way to ensure fidelity. 

On Tuesday, January, 18, 187t>, the Local Legislature was 
opened by the Lieutenant Governor with the usual ceremonies. In 
February the "Ariel Club" was formed for the purpose of having 
a series of " hops " during the winter months. The otticers were : 
President, A. G. B. Baunatyne; Vice, J. H. McTavish; Secretary, 
W. Clarke; Treasurer, J. A. Peebles. 

Mr. John A. Peebles, of Hamilton, now entered the house of 
Higgins & Young, in the dry goods department, and the firm be- 
came Higgins, Young & Peebles, Higgins & Young retaining the 
grocery business. 

The prorogation of the Local Legislature took place on Friday, 
4th of February, and one result of the legislation of the session 
was the abolition of the Legislative Council. The members of the 
Council who voted themselves out of othce were Hon. Messrs. 
McKay, Inkster, Gunn and Ogletree, all of whom were supplied 


immediately afterwards with government positions, and Hon. 
Messrs. O'Donnell, Hamelin and Dauphinais, who voted against . 1 
the abolition of the Legislative Council, were left altogether out 
in the cold. 

A temperance lodge was organized on Thursday, Feb. 10th, at 
Point Douglas. About the same time a $600 piano was purchased 
for the City Hall. It may be interesting, as a proof of the rapid 
increase of trade in this Province, to note the following figures in 
regard to freight : 

The shipment of goods from Moorhead for this Pro- 
vince in 1873 amounted to 23,613,036 

1874 " 37,626,200 

187;") « 76,078,680 

The new steam lire engine, named " Assiniboine," after its pre- 
decessor, arrived in the city drawn by four horses on Thursday 
morning, the 11th of February, and then Winnipeg breathed 

"Christ Church," the small chapel in connection with the Church 
of England, was opened in '75, and the opening services were 
held on Sunday, 11th August, the Bishop of Rupert's Land and 
the Pev. Canon O'Meara officiating. 

Dr. O'Donnell, who is a good judge of horse flesh, owned a very 
fine stallion, which was bred by Archbishop Tache. The Dr. sold 
his horse to some speculators in the States, and in '76, we hear of 
Selkirk taking a purse 'of $1,201) hi the 2.40 class at Dexter Park, 
Chicago, which was " well done" for Manitoba. Our friend Van 
had a hand in the "spec," and cleaved enough to retire, if he had 
wished to do so. The Victoria skating link, about this time, was 
turned into a gymnasium, but it did not prosper — it fizzled out 
in a short time. 

The second instalment of Icelanders arrived in Winnipeg, on 
Wednesday, 16th August, numbering 400 souls. 

In 1876 there were, owing to the grasshopper plague, upwards 
of 4o,04o barrels of Hour imported into Manitoba, up to 30th June 
of that year. Now, we are beginning to export largely of grain, 
and will soon send Hour as well. An old landmark in Winnipeg 
disappeared about this time, in the shape of Devlin's restaurant 



and bakery. — It was pulled down, and the buildings south of Du- 
four & Co.'s auction mart, were erected. The Manitoba Commer- 
cial College was opened toward the end of Sept., '76, in Snyder & 
Anderson's block, by Alex. Begg. For a time it prospered very 
well, while the novelty lasttd, but cold nights, enticing entertain- 
ments, &c., soon reduced the attendance of scholars, until finally 
Mr. Begg was obliged to close the establishment, on account of its 
proving a loss financially. 

The assessment for Protestant School purposes in the city of 
Winnipeg, amounted to $2, 740,300, in 1876. A philharmonic so- 
ciety was proposed in '70, and a meeting for the purpose of organ- 
ization was held in the city hall, on Friday, Sept. 29, Mayor Ken- 
nedy in the chair, and K. Brokovski secretary. Mr. W. Dufour, 
the auctioneer, 'par excellence, of Winnipeg, arrived here in Sept. 
'76, and commenced business. He at first conducted sales on be- 
half of J. A. Wright and J. M. McGregor, but afterwards struck 
out on his own account. Mr. Dufour has succeeded in building 
up a wonderful trade in his line, and in his peculiar role has shown 
himself thoroughly acquainted with all the necessary details. 

Oysters were sold, in September, '76, at $2 per can, in Winni- 
peg ; in 187<", in the same month, they commanded $3 ; in 1879 
they were 50 cents. In October, '76, the citizens were treated to 
the melodious strains of the first and only hand-organ ever heard 
in the city — blessed Winnipeg I 

In October, '76, the mammoth mill of the Hudson Hay Co., 
leased by J. N. McLane, was finished and commenced running. It 
is a building 57£x37-J feet, and 60 feet in height to the peak of the 
roof. The engine house is 38x44, and the engine of 250 horse 
power. The main driving wheel is 12 feet in diameter and 38-inch 
face. It has four run of stones, and is fitted up with all the mod- 
ern improvements. Without exception, when built this was the 
finest mill anywhere west of St. Paul. It's capacity for grinding 
is 1,350 bushels every 24 hours, which is pretty good for a young 
place like Winnipeg. A chimney sweep commenced business in 
Winnipeg in Oct. '7<>. About the same time a dramatic and liter- 
ary association was formed, the following gentlemen being chosen 
tlie otlicers thereof : Prenident, E. Brokovski ; Stage Manager, 


Frank I. Clarke; Secretary, James Emslie; Treasurer, J. 0. Le 
Cappelain, and Messrs. E. J. Thomas, C. X. Bell and J. S. Mc- 
Ginn, Managing Committee. The old " Trinity Church" was after- 
wards secured and converted into a theatre, and during the winter 
of '76 and '77 a series of entertainments took place, in which sev- 
eral of the ladies in the city took part. "Holy Trinity," therefore, 
commenced in a theatre, and so far as the old building is concerned 
it ended its days in the lap of mother drama. We have already 
mentioned Mc Lane's mill, and now we have to record some partic- 
ulars regarding the rival, "McMillan & Bassett's," at the foot of 
Post Office Street. The building was 30x50, and o2 feet in 
height. It was built to accommodate four run of stones, although 
it commenced with only two. Every recent improvement was 
placed in the establishment, which was named " The Winnipeg City 
Mills," and on the 14th of October a number of gentlemen were 
invited to see the mill in full working order, after which they were 
entertained by the proprietors at Gilmor's Hotel to a supper, and a 
very pleasant evening was spent. Mr. McMillan, who now owns 
the mills, has since then made many additions as already noted, 
and can turn out an article of flour which cannot be beaten 
in the whole Dominion. About this time a painful occurrence 
took place. Three of our citizens, Matt Davis, Joe Devlin and 
William Annette, being put on a trip on Lake Winnipeg in a small 
yacht, their boat must have been swamped in a storm, for it was 
afterwards found bottom upwards, ami the bodies of the three un- 
fortunate men drifted ashore. Matt Davis and Joe Devlin had a 
very large circle of friends in Winnipeg, who mourned their loss. 
Matt was one of our first blacksmiths ; at one time a councillor, 
he always took an active iufaerest in the city's progress. It was a 
most lamentable occurrence. The Winnipeg Field Battery, a corps 
which has always kept up a very fine appearance, received their two 
guns on Tuesday, 24th of October, '7b. The length of the guns was 
6 feet core, o feet 3 inches ponderance, 7 pounds calibre, 3 inches 
grooves, three twist of rifling 1 inch in 30 calibres. The rate of 
city taxes was struck at £ of a cent on the SI, in October, '7b. The 
first shipment of wheat from Manitoba was made on Saturday, 21st 
of October, by Higgins & Young, to Steele & Bros., Toronto, and 


consisted of 857 bushels, and we understand it was all sold out in 
Ontario for seed purposes at about S2.50 per busheL 

On Thursday, the 26th of October, 76, Ambroise Lepine was 

liberated from jail, having undergone his two years of imprison- 
ment, and the same evening the ex-Adjutant General of the Kiel 
government celebrated his liberation with a number of his friends 
at his house, a few miles up the river. A stage line between Win- 
nipeg and Selkirk was started the latter end of October, 70, and 
ran three times a week. A meeting of the members of the " fourth 
estate of the realm," was held in Winnipeg on Thursday, the 24th 
of October, when it was decided to apply to the Council of the 
Dominion Editors' and Reporters' Association for a rescript to au- 
thorize the formation of a local branch in Manitoba. An attempt 
to get a system of waterworks in the. city was made in the fall of 
76, a Mr. Woolsey having suggested a plan by which the scheme 
could be carried out. Macaulay & Jarvis and J. W. McLane both 
offered to furnish the steam power from their mills at a small cost. 
The scheme, however, fell through, as we are yet depending en- 
tirely on water earrieis. The day, however, is not far distant ere 
we will have a plentiful supply of good clear water. It is evident 
our city was not so well known abroad in 76 as it is to-day ; foi 
instance, letters were in the habit of being received at the Post 
Office addressed as follows: Winipeg, Winnepeg, Winne-Peg. 
Winnapeg, Winipegg, Windipeg, Winnopeg, Winpegg, Winnipig. 
Pennywick, &c, &c. We seldom hear, however, of such mistakes 
now. Messrs. Clarke & MeClure, who had gone exclusively into 
the importation of lumber from the United States, received their 
last fleet of flat-boats for the season of 7('», in October. The fleet 
carried 300,000 shingles and half a million of lumber, which, in ad- 
dition to the millions previously brought in by the firm, and the 
lumber manufactured by the mills in the city, will give some idea 
of the active progress in building going on at that time. And still 
the attempt to forma Philharmonic Society was not abandoned, and 
in November another meeting was held, G. IJ. Spencer in the chair, 
K Brukovski, secretary, when it was decided to "go snooks" with the 
Dramatic Association for the use of the Holy Trinity building. 
Tlie last boat of the season in 76 (the Alpha) arrived on. Saturday, 


4th uf November, and cleaved the same evening. In 1876 the 
Red River and Assiniboine ferries were running on the 11th of 

The handsome Methodist Episcopal Church, near Mr. Harvey's 
livery stable, built in 76, was dedicated and opened for public 
worship on Sunday, the 12th of November, '76. Rev. Mr. Pom- 
eroy officiated in the morning, Rev. A. McDonald in the afternoon, 
and Rev. James Robertson in the evening. 

A Curling Club was organized in Nov. '70, with the following 
officers: Patron, His Honor Lieut-Governor Morris; President, 
•John Balsillie: Vice-President, Capt. Howard; Cluiplaht,, Rev. 
Canon Grisdale'; Secretary-Treasurer, Andrew P. Denholm; 
Committee of Manayement, Messrs. Jas. H. Rowan, E. VV. Jarvis, 
Hon Win. N. Kennedy, Gilbert McMicken, and Alex. Brown; 
Reprexentatice Members, Messrs. Barclay and George Denholm. 
It was proposed to affiliate the club with the Royal Caledonian 
Club of Edinburgh. Curling ever since has been one of our favor- 
ite games in Winnipeg, and we have never been without a curling 

"The Winnipeg Amateur Literary and Dramatic Association" 
(it had simmered its name down to this) held its regular annual 
meeting in November, and the following officers were chosen for 
the season : President, E. Brokovski ; Vice-President, W. R. 
Ross; Staye Manager, V. 1. Clark.- Secretary, C. N. Bell: Trea- 
surer, E. Hughes ; Manayiny Committee, Messrs. McGinn, Forest, 
13. Young, and E. G. Thomas. 

Miss Hart Davies, (now Mrs. Cowley) arrived in Nov. '76, 
and took charge of the Ladies' School in connection with the Epis- 
copal Church, at St Andrew's. Mrs. Cowley, since her arrival in 
this country, has done much to establish the "Ladies' School" on 
a sure and lasting foundation. Parents and scholars have reason 
to feel confidence in her management, and since the opening of the 
u Ladies' School," (in connection with St. John's College) in Win- 
nipeg, Mi's. Cowley has reason to feel proud of the success which 
has attended her effort. We shall have occasion to refer to the 
institution again. 

The sport of wolf hunting was carried on by several of our citi- 


zens, during the full of '76, just outside the limits of the city, and 
about the latter end of November, our present mayor Alex. Logan 
and Mr. John Freeman succeeded in killing two very large speci- 
mens, a short distance back of the city, in the open prairie. The 
large weighing scales, purchased from McKinney Bros., were placed 
in position on the Market Square, in Nov. '76. Small pox having 
broken out amongst the Icelanders at Gimli, Dr. Lynch nobly of- 
fered his services, and on Sunday, ISth Nov., started for the scene 
of his arduous and dangerous labors, on the shores of Like Winni- 
peg. On Sunday, Nov., '76, the Rev. Mr. Fortin delivered 
an eloquent sermon on "Honest Labor and Snobs." It would be 
a very good idea, and might be of benefit to some, if just such a 
sermon was preached at least once a year in Winnipeg. A large 
bear belonging to one of the butchers in the city, broke loose one 
evening in latter end of November, '7(5, and visiting some of the 
billiard saloons, scattered tin- billiardists in every direction. He 
was a temperance advocate, and could not be induced to take a 
drink, but insisted upon delivering a temperance lecture which sent 
the b'hoys home to their beds sober and thoughtful. Bruin had it 
all his own way in the saloons for one night, but the next day he 
became a martyr to the cause of temperance by being knocked on 
the head and cut into steaks. There wasn't a saloon keeper in the 
city who didn't buy a slice of bear's meat on that occasion out 
of revenge for the loss of business the previous night. Poor 
Bruin, if he had only taken a cocktail and gone home quietly, he 
might have been alive to-day. The report of the spread of small- 
pox at Gimli being very alarming, an almost general vaccination of 
our citizens took place. The Local Government at the same time 
were using every effort to keep the disease out of the Province, 
and yet in the midst of misery we find glee, for, notwithstanding 
the dread of smallpox felt by our citizens, we find a " Glee Club" 
established in the city in December, '76, with W. S. Ptolemy, Pres- 
ident, D. Ramage, Musical Director, and D. B. Murray, Secretary 
and Treasurer. For the purpose of dealing with the smallpox dis- 
ease in (-rimli, and to take proper measures to prevent its spread 
amongst the Indians, the Dominion Government appointed the fol- 
lowing gentlemen temporarily as members of the " Council of Kee- 


watin ':" Lieut. Col. W. Osborne Smith, Dr. Jacques, Dr. Codd, 
G. McMicken, J. A. N. Provencher and Wm. Hespeler, and these j 
gentlemen at once took steps to organize a system of action for 
dealing with the smallpox epidemic. 

The first game of curling ever played in Manitoba took place 
on Monday, 11th of December, '70, at the rink of the Manitoba 
Curling Club, Winnipeg, when the following sides were chosen: 
Hon. A. G. B. Bannatyne, A. McMicken, 

George D. Northgraves, W. I). Taylor, 

A. P. Denholm, -Hon. T. Howard, 

James Barclay (skip) Alex. Brown (skip). 

Mr. Barclay's rink won, and the prize, a barrel of oatmeal, was 
sent to the hospital. 

One of the worst storms ever experienced in Manitoba, swept 
over the city of Winnipeg on Tuesday, the 12th of December, '70, 
and several of our citizens had narrow escapes from being lust and j 
frozen to death. Manitoba College had a narrow escape from de- 
struction by tire on Friday, the loth of December, but through the 
exertions of the students and some others it was saved. 

The sewerage of the city was completed in December, '70. The 
north sewer was about 2,800 feet in length, connecting with the 
outlet sewer opposite the City Hall. The outlet sewer, running 
down the gully past Brown & Rutherford's mill, was 1,600 feet 
long, and the main sewer about 9,000 feet in length, with tile 
pipes connecting, made the total length of sewerage constructed 
about 12,000 lineal feet. Catch basins were placed at the corners 
of the streets, and altogether the work was very complete. The 
total cost in round numbers was about $45,000. The contractors, 
Moberly & McLennan, conducted their work in a business-like and 
thorough manner, and to their credit lie it said that not a single 
accident occurred during the time the sewers were being constructed. 

The following changes in street nomenclature took place early 
in 76 : 

Old name. Situation. New Name. 

Rupert Pt Douglas Common Margaret. 

J ernima 1 >r< >wn-l Jurrows Estate Limit. 

Sinclair Bannatyne Estate Bannatyne. 


Margaret McDonald Property May. 

Victoria McDonald Property Hi^crins. 

Water Fonseca Property River. 

Schultz Schultz Property Water. 

Charlotte Logan Estate Machray. 

Annie Logan Estate Patrick. 

Annie Logan-Bird Estate Curtis. 

King Fonseca Estate McFarlane. 

Logan Pt. Douglas Common.... Commons. 

Market Brown-Burrows Estate Charles. 

Alexander W. R. Ross Estate Market. 

Messrs. Richard Erasmus, James Flannigan, and W. II. Lyon 

having left the protection of F/ncleSam, threw themselves into the 

arms of the British Lion, and became good naturalized citizens. 

To give some idea of the trade of the North-West, we will here 

mention one small order given Jas. H. Ashdown, in March, 76 : 
3,500 Tin Pails, 1,500 half-pint Cups, 

1,800 Round Pans, 400 Tea Pots, 

• 1,500 Oval Pans, &c, &c. 

1,800 Pint Cups, 
No wonder Ashdown grew rich. 
The organization of the Manitoba Cricket Club took place on 

Saturday, March 11th, '76, when J. H. McTavish was elected Pres- 
ident, A. G. 13. Bannatyne, vice-president, M. B. Wood, Secretary, 
and A. W. Powell, Treasurer. 

The Fire Brigade, on account of some difference with the City 
Council, resigned in a body in March. A division of the Sons of 
Temperance was organized in this city, under the name of Winni- 
peg Division No. 1, on Saturday, 25th March, '70. On Thursday, 
April 6th, the Fire Brigade re-organized, and elected the following 
officers: Chief, Capt. Scott ; Assistant Chief, Joseph Gauvreau- 
and Secretary, J. A. Wright ; there were 59 hose-men, and 29 
hook and ladder men in the new force, at its commencement. 

On the 6th April, '76, telegraphic communication was opened 
between Battle River, in the North- West, and the city of Winni- 
peg, and the following message was sent over the wires : — 


Telegraph Flat, Battle River, April 6. 

"The Telegraph Flatters take this the first opportunity of shak- 
ing hands with the Winnipeggers, across the wire, and conaratu- 
" late them on being in telegraphic communication with this theen- 
" terprising capital of the North-West." 

The next despatch was from 

Pelly, April 6, 

" The city of Swan River rejoices to join hands with her sister 
"city Winnipeg. Accept our warmest greetings." 

Alderman Villiers having tendered his resignation in the council, 
F. E. Cornish was elected hy acclamation for the West Ward, in 
his place. The customs department took possession of the new 
custom house in April, the first entry being madebyKew, Stobart 
& Co., on Tuesday, 11th April. The excavation fur the new 
building of Kew, Stobart, & Co., was commenced in April. A 
strong feeling existed about this time, that the Silsby fire-engine 
sent here to replace the one destroyed by fire, was not a first-class 
machine, and in order to test the matter, two competent engineers 
Messrs. F. Bryne, of the Manitoba, and W. F. Mitchell, of the 
Selkirk, undertook to give the machine a trial. This they did, op- 
posite Donaldson's, on Wednesday, 12th April, and as a result, 
gave it as their opinion that the engine was not a first-class one. 
The boats of the lied Lliver Transportation Co., in 1876, consisted 
of the following : — 


International, Capt. Painter; Minnesota, Capt. Timniens ; Da- 
kota, Capt. Seigers; Manitoba, Capt. Alex. Griggs. 


Selkirk, Capt. John Griggs; Alpha, Capt. Russell ; and the Chey- 
enne, as a reserve boat. 
The allocation of the reward of S5,000 for bringing to trial Le- 
pine and Nault for thelmirder of Scott, was as follows : 

William A. Fan i ler §2,0 00 

F. E. Cornish 400 

C. P. Thibaudeau 400 

Leon Dupont 330 

John S.Ingram 330 


E. Armstrong (sheriff) 330 

J. A.Kerr 330 

George M. Young 300 

Thomas Hughes 290 

H. W.Smith 290 

Lepine was sentenced to be hanged, but afterwards his sentence 
was commuted to two years imprisonment. On Friday, the 28th 
of April, '7t3, the third execution in Winnipeg took place. Louis 
Thomas was hanged for the murder of Henry Cornell, at Rat River, 
in the spring of '75. The first boat of the season (the Minnesota) 
arrived on the 25th of April, '76, and was the earliest arrival of it 
steamboat from the United States ever known. Tenders for the 
construction of the sewer on Main street having been asked, 
Messrs. Moberly & McLennan again tried their luck, and this time 
they were more successful, the work being knocked down to them 
at $22,800. Mr. Ramsay, the Chamberlain, having got into trou- 
ble with his books, which brought down on him the condemnation 
of the auditors, the City Council by a vote of 7 to 5 dismissed 
him. There was, however, no charge affecting the honesty of Mr. 
Ramsay, it was simply a matter of incompetency. The dismissal 
affected Mr. Ramsay's mind to such a degree that the poor fellow 
became dangerously ill, and soon after died. He was succeeded 
by Mr. William Taylor, an experienced accountant. A Work- 
men's Union Society was formed in May, '76, but we never heard 
of its amounting to much. 

Messrs. R. Genie & Co., who started in the furniture business 
in Winnipeg, having rented the building belonging to Mr. Banna- 
tyne, at the corner of Main and Post Office Streets, opened up a 
wholesale and retail dry goods establishment. They managed 
very soon to establish a large jobbing business, and now occupy fine 
premises in Radiger & Biggs' block, where they carry on an exclu- 
sive wholesale trade. 

On Friday evening, the 3d of June, '76, the Council chamber 
was filled with friends of Rev. George Young, Wesleyan minister, 
for the purpose of presenting the reverend gentleman with a testis 


monial and address. Mr. Young was leaving to take up his resi- 
dence in Toronto, and a general feeling of regret was felt by the 
citizens at his departure. 

Winnipeg in '70 sent a representative, in the person of Mr. 
"Chambers, gunsmith, to Wimbledon, but unfortunately he did nut 
make any extraordinary score. Mr. Chambers, however, was a 
very fine shot. The quickest time on record up to June, 76,- was 
made by Alex. Begg, lie having travelled the distance between St. 
Paul and Winnipeg in three days. Messrs. Cuddy & Smith start- 
ed business in June, 70, in the new building erected in the place 
of Red Piver Kail, burned down. They quickly worked into a 
'.good country and city trade, and have remained in the .same prem- 
ises ever since. From statistics of the city we gather that in the 
early part of 76 there were 5,522 inhabitants in the city. The 
value of real property, £2,214,200 ; personal property, $822,802. 
Total assessment, $3,037,008. These figures show nearly half a 
million increase in one year. 

The painful news of the death of Hon. Dr. C. J. Bird, in Eng- 
land, was received early in June, 70, and cast a gloom over a large 
number of citizens. The deceased had been prominently connect- 
ed with the public affairs of the Province, and was, at the time of 
his death, paying a visit to friends in England in order to recuper- 
ate his strength, lie having been in ill health for some time. Mr. 
W. H. Ross arrived on the 17th of June, 70, and immediately 
commenced the practice of law. His brother joined him after- 
wards, and the firm became Poss & Poss, and now, with Mr. Kil- 
lam in company, the firm of Poss, Poss & Killam, is one of the 
leading law firms in the city, besides which they are heavy specu- 
lators in real estate. 

A strange fatality seemed to exist between the steamers Mani- 
toba and International, for on Sunday, 25th of June, 75, these 
two boats collided a second time, only on this occasion very little 
tlaniajie was done. 



McLane's Mill — The Frit Trade— Mr. Demers — Montana Cattle — Gunpowder 
— La.\d Sales — Music — Valuable Property — Manitoba Club — Fire 
Insurance — R. Strang — Bokbiks— Thk Kee-wa-tin — Winnipeg Direc- 
tory — Mr. Larivterre — Trott & Melville — Post Office — H. Hodges 
— Saskatchewan Mail — "Shorties" — Kick M. Howard — The Race 
fob Mayoralty— Joun Freeman — A Tender Vale. — Civic Elections, 
77 — Bivalves — A Gentlemanlike Collector — The Ariels — Imports 
— A. F. Eden — Public Works — A Pacific Whoop up — Literary — 
The Nonpareils — Public Schools— Concert— Thus. Nixon — Chess 
Club — Fire — Chamber's Factory — P arli amenta ry — " Manitoba 
Daily Herald" — Mass Meetings — Railway Resolutions — Captain 
Gbovenoi; — H. Drummond — Guide to Manitoba— John Peebles— Re- 


— Sewer — Stage Coach — Solid Men — First Boat — Spring Flood — 
A Burst ur — Firk Brigade — Dominion Hotel Burned — Meat Mar* 
ket — Milling Interests — Temperance Hall— A Rushing Contractor — ' 
Flat Boats— The "Standard" — Mr. W. Coldwell — Infantry Com- 
pany — The First Sod — Lady Evangelists — The Gospel in the Bab- 
room — Brave Women. 

J. W. McLaiie, of Hat-boat notoriety, having leased the H. B. Co's. 
mill, commenced erecting more buildings for the purpose, and when 
finished, it was the largest Hour mill west of St. Paul. The large 
warehouse built by II. McKenny, who had returned to Winnipeg 
from Pembina, was purchased by Me Lane, and moved a distance 
of one half a mile, to where he was erecting the mill. On Wed- 
nesday, the 28th June, '70, a train of sixty carts laden with furs 
for A. G. B. Bannatyne and K. Patterson, passed up Main Street, 
a sight which reminded some of the oldest inhabitants, of the ear- 
liest days of Winnipeg. Mr T. J. Deiuers arrived in Winnipeg 
from Frenchtown, Montana, having come the distance overland, 
bringing with him a herd of 070 head of cattle. Some excitement 
existed in the minds of Winnipeggers, in regard to the storage of 
gunpowder during the summer of '70, and in consequence, a build- 
ing was procured outside the limits of the city, and a few of our 
merchants stored their powder there. The Hudson's 1 Bay Co's. 
Report, in '70, showed that 170 of their lots in Winnipeg had been 


disposed of, at various rates, for $123,197. The military band 
having passed out of existence, a number of young men, ahout this 
time, organized;! city hand. To show the value city property was 
estimated at in '76, we may mention that a cash oiler of S3,(Mm> 
was made for a small lot next to Dr. Bird's, on Main Street, ami 
refused. An additional contract for sewerage in the north waul, 
on Main Street, was made in July, the work to hi; finished in No- 
vember. The Manitoba Ulub, after being burnt out in McDermott'.- 
Block, opened again in the building now occupied by the Indian 
Department on Thistle Street, but after a time this was found un- 
suitable, and through the enterprise of 11. Patterson, the present 
fine club house was built and occupied. Since that time the "Man- 
itoba" has gradually increased in importance, until now it is one of 
the chief institutions of the city. 

Kew, Stobart, & Co.'s first shipment of furs, in '7G, amounted to 
§45,000, besides 20 "> bales, or 2,050 buffalo robes. Fire insurance 
offices began now to be established, since the city procured steam 
fire engines ami water tanks, for about this time we observe that 
the Canada Fire and Marine started here under the agency of Robert 

Our city fathers, having neglected to clothe their policemen in 
uniform, these worthy protectors of the peace undertook to pro- 
cure for themselves a uniform suiticient to designate their impor- 
tant positions as guardians of the city. 

The fireengine which was injured by the tire on Christmas, hav- 
ing been repaired, a trial took place; when it threw a stream 160 
feet in height, through an inch and one-eighth nozzle, and with 
only between thirty and forty pounds of steam, which was not so 
bad considering it had bad fuel. The mill now owned by Mr. 
McMillan, at the foot of Post Office Street, was built during this 
summer. It was furnished with a run of four stones, and has 
been kept almost constantly running night and day ever since. 
The l'atejit Process Hour turned out by this mill is considered 
equal to the very best produced in the Western States. Red River 
wheat being especially adapted for the purpose, it being harder, 
and more easily granulated. An average of 400 bushels a day is 


turned out. Large shipments of Hour are made by Capt. McMillan 
into the interior, and the business is rapidly assuming very 
large proportions. The number of men employed during the sum- 
mer of '70 on the sewers averaged seventy, and the outlay in wages 
§400 to 8500 per week. In July the city purchased from O. Mon- 
champ, for 81,000, the land south of Mr. Ashdown's store, to be 
converted into a street, and from that time Ashdown's corner be- 
came an established fact. The tug Maggie having been converted 
into the steamer Keevxitin, the latter began to ply regularly be- 
tween Winnipeg and Selkirk. The first attempt to get up a City 
Directory for Winnipeg was suggested in '76 by Alex. Begg to E. ■ 
L. Ilarber, who commenced the work, but transferred it to Cook & 
Fletcher. It was a very crude attempt, but was followed the 
same summer by a much better book compiled by Messrs. Lari- 
viere & Gauvin, and each year since then Mr. Lariviere has been 
interested in publishing an annual directory, which he has done 
with great credit to himself and benefit to the city. The tonsorial 
establishment at one time occupied by Fairbanks, the great artist, 
in that line, was in '70 completely renovated and turned into a 
handsome drug store for the firm of Trott & Melville, who have 
occupied it ever since. The present line Post Office was occupied 
for the first time in August, '76, much to the delight of Winni- 
peggers, as it was complete with all the modern improvements for 
the convenience of the public. Mr. Hodges, who in '70 was in 
partnership with Snyder & Anderson, withdrew from that firm 
about August of that year, and opened the premises where he is at 
present doing business. The first departure of the regular Sas- 
katchewan mail from Winnipeg took place during the summer of 
J 76, Hon. James McKay being the contractor. To show how very 
mixed our population had become as early as the summer of '70, 
it was not uncommon to note the following nationalities on our 
streets: Englishmen, Irishmen, Scotchmen, Icelanders, Canadi- 
ans, Frenchmen, Yankees, half-breed Indians, French Canadians, 
Negroes, Merinonites, Norwegians, Welshmen. 

On the 8th of August the first important arrival of Icelanders 
took place, and after a short stay in this city proceeded to Gimli, 
on Lake Winnipeg, in flat-boats prepared for the purpose. 


It was in order, about this time, to establish Bachelor Clubs, 
in the city, and uiie of these, the " Shorties," gave a grand enter- 
tainment to a select number of friends in their club-room, i. e. 
boarding-house. Mr. Rice M. Howard, having resigned his posi- 
tion as Clerk of the Legislative Assembly, Mr Thomas Spence was 
appointed to the position, which he lias held ever since with great 
dignity and distinction. On Monday, the 25th Dec., the nomina- 
tions for the mayoralty took place at the city hall : 

Thos. Lusted was proposed by J. H. Ashdown, seconded by W. 
H. Lyon. 

E. W. Jarvis was proposed by J. W. McLane, seconded by W. 

F. Luxton. 

W. N. Kennedy was proposed by E. C Conklin, seconded by 
Alex. McMicken. 

Capt. Thos. Scott was proposed by Win. McDonald, seconded 
by D. Sinclair. 

Mr. E. \V. Jarvis and W. N. Kennedy, however, both retired, 
and the contest remained between Scott and Lusted. 

The voters' lists of the city of "Winnipeg, completed at the end 
of the year 187G, contained 1,034 names, as follows: — 

Westward 202 voters. 

North Ward 282 « 

Eastward 232 " 

Southward 228 

Total 1,034 

Mr John Freeman, being about to dissolve connection with the 
firm of Kew, Stobait & Co., of which he was manager, was the re- 
cipient of a very handsome chain, on Wednesday, the 27th Dec, 
as a testimonial from the employees of the establishment. 

The civic elections for the year 1877, took place on Thursday, the 
2nd January, with the following result : — 

ten years ix winnipeg. 151 

Scott. Lusted. 

North Ward 41 67 

Southward 93 20 

Eastward 42 57 

WestWard 53 74 

229 218 

Majority for Scott 11 

Messrs. S. J. Jackson, A. McNee, and Jas. Rice were elected by 
acclamation for the West Ward, and Messrs. Duncan Sinclair, H. 
6. McMicken, and Alex. Brown for the East Ward. 


W. F. Alloway 112 

A. W. Burrows 1 00 

E. G. Conklin 100 


Alex. Logan 133 

J. B. More 118 

W. G. Fonseca 88 

About 3,000 cans of oysters were received in Winnipeg during 
the month of Dec, '70, showing that our citizens were fond of the 

Mr. G. F. CaiTUthers was at this time collector of civic taxes, 
and a most gentlemanly official he proved to be ; he worried no- 
body, and didn't worn' himself either very much about the matter. 
The Ariel club, which was earned on with spirit during the winter 
of '70, was re-organized in '77, with the following officers : Presi- 
dent, Hon. A. G. B. Bannatyne ; Vice-President, J. H. Mc- 
Tavish ; See return, Air. J. Freeman ; Treasurer, Mr. J. A. Peebles; 
and Committee of Management, Messrs. A Logan, E. Brokovski, 
D. Young, A Strang, and C. U. Lindsay. 

The value of imports from the United States into Manitoba, was 
$802,400, and the exports, chiefly furs, $794,808, the one nearly 
balancing the other. Mr. A. F. Eden assumed the management 
of Kew, Stobart & Co.'s business in January, '77, and Mr. Freeman 
•severed his connection with the firm. 


The total amount of street grading, &c, done in '76, was as fol- 
lows : 

Lineal Yards. Cost. 

North Ward 110 3 10G 53 

Southward 615 1.043 97 

Eastward 1,152 1,413 57 

West Ward 2,420 1,968 33 

4,298 $4,532 40 


North Ward 8 100 73 

South Ward 159 15 

East Ward 273 02 

WestWard 162 85 

$696 75 


Lineal Yards. 

NorthWard 793 3 ft. wide $ 488 45 

Southward 166 10 ft. wide 424 60 

East Ward 30 10 ft. wide 

228 5 ft. 4 in. wide 
28 ft. crossings 426 31 

West Ward 150 10 ft, wide 

296 5 ft. 4 in. wide 
18 6 ft. wide 
72 yards crossing 894 41 

£2,238 77 

Sewerage SI 515 6o 

On Monday, the 8th of January, '77, the Canada Pacific Hotel 
was regularly opened by thejproprietor or lessee, Mr. Haverty, and 
a number of invited guests sat down to a splendid dinner in honor 
of the occasion. The first entertainment of the Winnipeg Literary 
and Dramatic Association took place on Thursday, 4th of January,. 



'77, in the old Trinity Church, which was re-christened Uniterm 
Hall for the occasion. The comic drama, iir one act, of " The New 
Footman," hy Charles Selby, was produced, with the following 
cast : 

Mr. Capsicum G. H. Kellond 

Henry Gordon C N. Bell 

Bobby Breakwindow F. Hoy 

Mr. Sourcrout KG. Thomas 

Polly Picnic Mrs. Brokovski 

Miss Sourcrout I. St. L. McGinn 

The entertainment proved a great success, and was followed by 
others during the winter. The Nonpariel Dancing * Club was 
formed in January, '77, and was kept up for some time. 

The contracts for the erection of two tine school houses was 
awarded in January, '77, to 1£. 1). Patterson, for the sum of 810,- 
200. The Central School to be 04 feet long, by 54 feet from face 
of front wing through to rear, with three fronts, therefore, of 28 
feet each in width. The building was designed with two full 
storeys of 14 and 16 feet in height, the capacity to be 450 pupils. 
The North Ward School was designed 28 feet by 40, the capacity 
to be 17«"> pupils. A grand Temperance Concert was held in the 
City Hall on Tuesday, the 16th of January, '77, for the purpose of 
raising funds for the erection of our present fine Temperance Hall. 
Thomas Nixon, sen., who, ever since his first arrival in Winnipeg, 
has taken an active interest in temperance matters, occupied the 
chair. Mr. Nixon deserves the gratitude of every right thinking 
man in the community, for his activity in the cause of temperance. 
To him is chiefly due the fact that we have our Temperance Hall, 
which, as a public building, is an ornament to the city. Mr. Nix- 
on has earned the respect of our citizens during his sojourn 
amongst us for his earnestness in a cause which can only bring 
happiness and comfort with it, — the cause of Tempeiance. A 
Chess and Draught Club was formed early in '77, with the follow- 
ing officers : President, C. F. Forrest; Vice, J. B. More; Secre- 
tary and Treasure^ K. G. Conklin ; Cmnmittee of Management, 
Messrs. J. McLeod, S. J. Jackson and L II. Bently, and 
we find the St. Patrick's Society in a flourishing con- 


dition about the same time, with G. B. Bemister, President; 
Frank McPhillips, 1st Vice; J. McKenny, 2nd Fice; T. D. Caul- 
field, Secretary ; and J. R. Mulligan, Treasurer. On January 
19th, '77, Chambers' biscuit factory was gutted by fire, but hardly 
had the flames been extinguished, ere work was resumed, showing 
a good deal of enterprise and pluck on the part of the proprietor. 
At that time the Selkirk ltegistry Office was kept in the same 
building in which the biscuit manufacture was carried on, and the 
papers and records had a narrow escape. Upstairs over the factory 
was the temperance hall, which suffered considerably. 

The third session of the second Parliament of Manitoba, was 
opened in the Court House on Tuesday, dan. 30th, '77, by Lieut.- 
Governor Morris. The Manitoba Daily Herald, a morning news- 
paper, started in the Conservative interests by W. O. Fonseca, 
after a short existence of two weeks, expired, having under- 
gone the pangs of starvation for about 14 days. It was a little 
paper, and did not require much to feed it, but notwithstanding 
this, it sickened and died in infancy. Mr. Fonseca was glad when 
the burial took place, audit left this world so quietly that very few 
were aware of its demise. The daily Free Prettx, with cold-blooded 
cruelty, chuckled over the departure of the little Herald. Win- 
nipeg was not yet dead to mass meetings, in the beginning of Feb- 
ruary, '77 ; for, on the 6th of that month, a large assemblage of 
citizens filled the city hall to discuss railway matters. Mayor 
Scott presided, and the first resolution, moved by A. W. Burrows, 
seconded by T. Lusted, and carried, was "That in consideration of 
"the fact that the building of a railway to the west will ultimately 
" facilitate the building of a railroad bridge at Winnipeg, it is 
"deemed desirable that all our energies be lent to accomplish the 
"building of the road." 

The next resolution was moved by J. H. Afhdown, seconded by 
Hon. U. A. Davis, and carried, "That we, the inhabitants of the city 
" of Winnipeg, to assist in the construction of said railroad, hereby 
"pledge ourselves to pass a by-law for raising the sum of two hun- 
"dred thousand dollars to subsidize a responsible company, that 
"will construct a railway to the western limits of the province." 

The third resolution was moved by W. F. Luxton, seconded by 


J. B. More, and carried, "That the Provincial Legislature be re- 
quested to enact Luvs facilitating the establishing of municipal 
"institutions, with powers to assist in the construction of such 
" railway." 

The fourth resolution was moved by C. P. Brown, seconded by 
Dr. Cowan, of High Bluff, and carried, " That municipalities so es- 
" tablished, and the people on the proposed route, l)e requested to 
" aid in such construction by means of bonuses to an amount to be 
agreed on." 

The fifth resolution was moved by 8. C. Biggs, seconded by 
John Villiers, and carried, "That through our representatives in 
"Ottawa, we would respectfully hut strongly urge the Dominion 
" Government to re- • msider their determination with regard to the 
"building of a railway bridge at this point." 

The sixth resolution was moved by K. McKenzie, seconded by 
Archibald Wright, and carried, "That with a view to further the 
" objects of the foregoing resolution, a standing committee 
" consisting of A. G, B. Bannatyne, B. A. Davis, M. A. 
" Girard, Joseph Royal, James Mackay, K. McKenzie, C. P. 
"Brown, Dr. Cowan, John Taylor, Robert Morgan, P. Tait, 
" Felix Chenier, Thos. Lumsden, D. H. Scott, A. W. McClure, 
"Wm. Wagner, Joseph Ryan, C. Cowland, John Smith, Walter 
" Lynch, A. Spence, J. A. K. Drummond, Wm. Gowler, John Wil- 
" ton, Pierre Laviellier, 11. Hastie, T. Lusted, D. Sinclair, J. H. 
" Ashdown, Arch. Wright, W. G. Fonseca, J. Villiers, F. E. Cor- 
nish, J. H. MeTavish, Wm. X. Kennedy, T. Scott, W. K. Jarvis, 
" W. R. Dick, Alex. Logan, W. H. Lyon, D. McArthur, W. F. 
"Luxton, (r. Brown, A. Strang, J. B. More, A. W. Burrows, S. C. 
"Biggs, G. McMicken, Dr. O'Donnell, G. B. Spencer, be formed 
"with power to act as may seem best calculated to aid the same, 
"and seven members shall form a quorum." 

The seventh resolution was moved by W. X. Kennedy, seconded 
by W. 11. Dick, and carried: 

"That the Dominion Government be requested to assist in the 
"construction of a railway west from Winnipeg by a grant :>f 
" land." 

Capt. Grovenor in February, 77, received the appointment of 


Vice American Consul in place of A. X. Carpenter, who had gone 
to live East. Mr. Drumniond was appointed Chamberlain in place 
Air. Taylor, resigned, and he has held the office ever since to the 
satisfaction of the Council and the general public. A meeting of 
the merchants of Winnipeg took place in Hon. John Norquay's 
office, on Saturday, February 10, to examine a practical handbook 
and guide to Manitoba, for immigrants, and the work was endorsed 
by the committee formed for the purpose of examining its value as 
a channel for information regarding the province. The committee 
was composed of Messrs. Lyon, Donaldson, Eden, Peebles, Radiger, 
Banning and Burrows. An edition of this book, to the extent of 
10,000, was afterwards published and circulated, and did much to 
attract attention to the country. A meeting of the committee au- 
pointed to take into consideration the western railway, took place 
in the City Hall on the 10th of February, and after adding a large 
number of names to the committee, passed several resolutions, 
after which Mr. G. 1>. Spencer was selected to ascertain the opin- 
ions of the incorporators of the Western road on the subject under 
discussion. Two tons of butter was imported by Snyder & Ander- 
son in February, 77, but we seldom hear of such importations 
now. The "League of Templars " was founded in Winnipeg Fri- 
day, February '2:\, at the Orange Hall, about twenty persons being 
present. Mr. Peebles, of the firm of Higgins, Yonng & Peebles, 
having left that firm, he engaged in the beginning of March, '77, 
as buyer and chief salesman with Kew, Stobart & Co. A re-dis- 
tribution bill being before the Local Legislature, Winnipeg called a 
mass meeting on Wednesday, February 21st, to consider her inter- 
ests in the matter. The meeting was held in the City Hall, May- 
or Scott in the chair, and A. M. Brown Secretary, and the result of 
the deliberations was that in the opinion of those present, Winni- 
peg was entitled to two representatives in the Local Legislature. 
However, the meeting did not appear to have had much influence, 
as sve have only one representative in the Manitoba Parliament at 
the present day. 

The amount of duties collected at the port of Winnipeg for the 
year ending 30th of dune, 76, was £2~>4,04o. 88, against $171.- 
430. 8G in 187o, and S07,471. ( .<7 in 1874. The examining ware- 


house had, up to March, 77, been located at warehouse No. 4, but 
on representations made to the Dominion Government by Mr. 
Bannatyne, an examining warehouse was established at No. 6. A 
grand dinner was given by the St. Patrick's Society at the Interna-. 
tional Hotel, on Saturday, March 17, '77. The tender for the out- 
let sewer was let in March, '77, to Wm. Besant, for $2,750. Mr. 
W. H. Lyon about this time sold out his retail business to Harry 
Pearson, having decided to give all his attention to a wholesale, 
trade. He is at present the only exclusively wholesale grocer in 
the North- West, and conducts a trade which extends even to the 
Rocky Mountains.. 

The Stage Company now began to make preparations to abandon 
the route to Winnipeg altogether, for in April, '77, they took off 
all the best stock, coaches and drivers, and placed them on' the 
Black, Hills route. From that time they ran two-horse wagons to. 
Winnipeg until they finally abandoned the route altogether when 
the Pembina Railway opened. As a proof that we have solid men 
in Winnipeg, four of our citizens had themselves weighed, with the. 
following result : 

Hon. James McKay 400 lbs. 

Hugh Maloney 285 " 

Van 265 " 

Mr. Whitehead, C. P. Pi 250 " 

1,200 lbs. 
Pretty good for Winnipeg. The first boat of the season arrived at 
Winnipeg on Monday afternoon, April 22, '77. Towards the. end 
of April, '77, a thaw set in so rapidly that large quantities of water 
accumulated on the prairie back of the city, which, being unable to. 
find its usual outlet, on account of the creek being filled in, oppo- 
site Wright's block, caused an inundation. A good deal of proper- 
ty was destroyed, and one child drowned, before the city authori- 
ties had time to effect a drainage to run off the superfluous water. 
The fire brigade having burst up, a meeting to re-organize was 
held in the City Hall on Thursday, 26th of April, '77, when the 
following officers were elected : 



Captain Alex. Brown. 

First Lieutenant H. Pearson. 

Second Lieutenant I). X. Embree. 


Captain Win. Code. 

First Lieutenant Geo. Treherue. 

.Second Lieutenant J. R. Cameron. 

Brigade Secretary and Treasurer W. H. Saunders. 

Chief of the Brigade Capt, McMillan. 

On the 1st May, 1877, the addition to the city hall erected for 
& market was completed and opened to the puhlic. The size was 
70x51 and the cost was §5,000. The steamer Prince Rupert now 
began to make regular trips up the Assiniboine. A fire occurred 
xm Thursday, May 3rd, '77, when the Dominion Hotel then kept 
by E. Swaze, was destroyed. In fourteen minutes from the first 
alarm the fire engine appeared on the scene, and three minutes 
later a stream of water was thrown on the flames. The building, 
however, was entirely gutted, and Mr. Swaze lost between S5,000 
and SO, 000, uninsured. The first butchers in the new market were 
as follows: — No. 5, Code; No. 6, Lamb; No. 7, Bose ; Xo. 8, 
■Clarke; Xo. 9, MeXee & Co; Xo. ID, Rocan. 

Some idea of the extent of milling operations in Winnipeg may be 
gathered from the following : Macanlay & Jarvis in '77 brought 
down from lied Lake, Minnesota, four million and a half of white 
pine logs, and besides this, thirty car loads of seasoned lumber, the 
weekly expenses of this Hrm ranged from $1,500 to $2,000. Work- 
on Temperance Hall was commenced in May, '77, and the brick 
part of Kew, Stobart & (Jo's tine building was being proceeded with. 
Mr. Whitehead's warehouse, near the foot of Tost Office Street, 
was built in May, 1877, and was completed in six and a half 
working days, pretty quick time ; J. »T. Johnston was the builder. 
Up to the 24th May, 1877, there were seventy-seven arrivals of 
flatboats, bringing in 1,:3*_'7 tons of freight since opening of navi- 
gation, which will give some idea of flat-boat business in Winnipeg 
at that time. About this month a decided improvement took place 
in the management of the weekly Stan tlard newspaper, which was 


accounted for by the fact, that Mr. Win. Coldwell, an old news- 
paper man, had taken hold of it, Mr. Coldwell is a man who lias 
always been highly respected in this country. Possessed of a 
sound judgement, a good writer and trustworthy reporter, he could 
not fail to edit a paper well. The Standard, since his management 
of it commenced, has gradually improved, week by week, until now 
there are few newspapers so ably edited as it at present is. A 
Winnipeg Infantry Company having I>een formed, the uniforms 
for the men arrived in June '77. 

The first sod of St. John's Ladies College was turned on Wed- 
nesday, May 30, 1877, by Miss Hart Davies, the principal. On 
.Saturday evening, the 3rd June, an incident occurred in Winnipeg 
the like of which has not happened since, in this citv. The 
frequenters of the Red Saloon were enjoying their cocktails, 
brandies straight, and whiskeys sour, ponies of beer, mint juleps, 
milk-punches, and torn and jerries, when in walked two ladies and 
took possession of the premises. As soon as the drinks were, 
finished, and when the astonishment of the wine-bibers had some-. 
what subsided, the ladies calmly opened a bible, and quoted freely 
from the good work and expounded the Word of Cod to the assem- 
blage. These ladies were only interrupted once during the service, 
and were listened to attentively by the men present. The pro- 
prietors of the saloon had given the ladies, whose names were 
Mrs. Cedarholm and Miss Garrison, permission to preach, and to 
their honor be it said they saw that proper respect was paid then? 
by the persons present. 



'City Cemetery — Base Ball — Pottery — Medical — Masonic — St. John's 
Ladies School — Manitoba College — Fide Alarm Bell — A Scaffold — 
A Pleasant Excuet — Grage Church— Smith and., Melville — A New 
Enterprise — Regatta — Native Athletes — The Boys— A Bio Blow — 
White Ribbon — Mass Meeting— "Winnipeg Generosity — Assessment of 
1877 — Mr. Nursey's Sufferings — Small-fox Heroics — An Ignorant 
Commission — A Conservative Paper — Another of Beog's Babies— The 
Winnipeg Herald— Cool Burgess — A Gubernatorial Committee— Dis- 
banded Militia — Col. Smith's Ultimatum — Advent of EarlDufferin 
— Civic Hysterics — Pyrotechnic — Oratorical — Rain — Very Pluvial 
— The Lady Ellen — Tin: Light Fantastic — A Boss Snow— Galore— En- 
thusiasm — Mr. Kkw Retires — Mr. Eden Turns up — Lois of Assurance 
Mr. David Mills thf. Philosopher— Dick and Bannini: — Tee-to-tal — 
British Assurance — Law — Woollen Mills — City Debentures — The 
First Locomotive — A Pah: of Belles — Meat — Winnipeg Abattoir — 
Mr.. Morris — Wheat — Sunday Schools— A Resigned Alderman— Bank 
of Montreal — Mi:. Sweeney — An Inquisitive Rat — Heathen Chinee 
A. W. Powell — A Quiet Orgie — Stobart &; Eden — New Block — Win* 
nipeo Spreads Herself — Arrival of Guv. Cauchon — Bis dat, qui cito 
dat — Mourning— A Civic Suit — Resignation — A Midnight Assassjn — 
Manitoba University — A Festive School Board— Facts and Figures 
— A City of Promise — Col. Peebles — Hospital Hospitality. 

The city about this time invested in some land in the neighbor- 
hood of St. James' parish, from Hon. Tims. 1 Toward, for a cemetery. 
Mr. Joseph Whitehead received 222 car wheels, and a number of 
axles, which looked promising for our railway prospects. The 
" Star " base ball club was organized in dune, with the following 
'officers : — A. W. Burrows, President ; A. MeGowan, Vice-Presi- 
dent and \Y. P. Dick, Captain. The first lot of pottery manufac- 
tured in Manitoba, was received from the works of Sutherland & 
Brydon, at Selkirk, in June, 1ST 1 .). On the 12th of June, 1877, 
the College of Physicians of Manitoba, met in the Council Cham- 
ber, the President, Dr. O'Donnell, occupying the chair. The fol- 
lowing members were elected by ballot, to constitute the Medical 
Board : — Dr. O'Donnell, Dr. Cowan, (Winnipeg) Dr. Lynch, Dr. 
Codd, Dr. Young, (Lower Fort.) The fonWing officers of the Board 
were then elected : Dr. O'Donnell, President ; Dr. Cowan, Vice- 
President; Dr. Lynch, Registrar ; Dr. Codd, Treasurer. 


The following is a list of membership of Masonic Lodges in 
Manitoba, in 1S77 : — 
Prince Ruperts 128 

Lis 8 a1 ' 36 

Ancient Landmark 71 

St. Johns 3g 

Hiram 31 

Emerson j 4 

The contract for the erection of tin- St, Johns Ladies School was 
awarded in June, 1S77, to Mr. II. 1). Patterson, for §13,300. The 
building, although just outside the city limits, may he considered 
■one of the ornaments <»f Winnipeg. It is built of biick, with stone 
facings, and is a. combination Swiss, English and American gothie, 
with mansard roof. We have not space to give a full description, 
but will merely say that it is very commodious, and is situated in 
the midst of grounds, four acres in extent. In the meantime the 
Manitoba College continued in a flourishing condition, and the 
large building, at Point Douglas, formerly owned by W. G. Fonseca, 
having been purchased from that gentleman, the College became a 
regularly established institution of the city. A new fire alarm 
bell (the same at present in use) was received June, and steps 
taken to have it placed in position for service. A scaffold was 
erected opposite the engine house, which, since the fire on Post 
Office street, was situated just east of where the Indian office is to- 
day. The hell weighs 1,285 lbs., made by Meneely & Kimherley 
Troy, N. Y., and cost So25. Mr. Win. Chambers, who was the first 
representative from Manitoba, at Wimbledon, died 5th July, much 
regretted by a large circle of friends. A pleasant excursion to 
Lake Winnipeg, on the steamer Manitoba,, took place about this 
time, and was enjoyed by a number of our citizens, many of whom 
will remember the trip out into the lake, and the anxiety to return 
when it began to grow dark. Lake Winnipeg, most of them 
thought was hardly the place for a river boat. Grace Church, 
owing to the rapid increase of its congregation, had to be enlarged, 
and during the time a portion of the work was going on, the Court 


House was used for the services on Sundays. The large mill used 
now by H. Sutherland & Bio., but then owned by Smith & 
Melville, was opened in the early part of July, when a number of 
our citizens visited the mill for the purpose of taking part in the 
christening. Toasts were drank with enthusiasm, and the proprie- 
tors were wished every success. A grand regatta took place in 
July on the Red River, just above Fort Garry, which was viewed 
by a large crowd of people. The first race, single sculls, was won 
by 0. D. Radiger's "Dolly," rowed by Wm. McMillan. The 
double scull race was won by Col. Smith's " Kathleen," rowed by 
Private Piickett and Owens of the garrison. The canoe race was 
won by 0. W. Graham's "Whip-poor-will," paddled by Messrs. 
Christie and McDonald of the H. B.C. The pair oared race was 
won by C. W. Radigers "Dolly," rowed by Messrs. Powell and 
Wm. McMillan, young Morice acting as cockswain. A yacht race 
advertised did not come oil'. It is a pity we do not have more 
rowing and sailing on the river. Early in July, 1877, the city was 
visited by a perfect hurricane, which demolished chimnies and 
sent signs s kiting down the streets ; no lives were lost, but there 
were several narrow escapes. The "Winnipeg White Ribbon Tem- 
perance Association was organized in July, '77 — President, S. 
Bassett ; Vice., Stone ; Secy., A. 11. Burns ; Treasurer, G. T. Wil- 
liams. The Society numbered about twenty-five members. 

On Friday, July 20, a mass meeting was held in the City Hall 
to consider the manner of receiving the Governor-General, who 
was about paying Manitoba a visit. We will refrain from com- 
menting upon that meeting, as many of the remarks passed by 
some of the citizens, on that occasion, were hardly creditable to 
themselves or the character of the city. There was very little 
unity, and a good deal of ill feeling was expressed by some of the 
speakers towards each other. Winnipeg, in 1877, contributed 
$400 towards aiding the sufferers of the St. John's rire. 

The assessment of 1877 was as follows : 


Value of real property ' $536,350 

Value of personal property 100,000 





Value of real property $1,000,600 

Value of personal property 145,425 

SI, 155,085 


Value of real property §503,435 

Value of Personal property 149,150 


Total assessable property $501,500 


Towards the end of July, Walter II. Nursey returned with his 
quarantine party, in a half-starved condition, from Lake Winnipeg. 
Mr. Nursey, as Chief Health Officer of Keewatin, had heeii de- 
spatched by Governor Moms in February, at the time of the 
small-pox scourge, to establish a northern quarantine and sanitary 
cordon between ourselves and the infected district, and to regulate 
the traffic in fur. After putting in a very accented winter's work, 
having travelled, on foot, from the Berens liiver to the Saskatche- 
wan, from the Winnipeg to the Nelson, and nearly killing himself 
in. his zeal, he found himself in the month of May at the Do ,r 
Head, an inhospitable outpost, in mid-lake, nobody's servant, the 
services of the Council of Keewatin having been dispensed with 
by Mr. Mackenzie's Government — without instructions, without 
supplies, without money, without even means of escape from the 
situation. By an unaccountable fluke, late in July, an opportun- 
ity presenteditself for flight, and Mr Nursey returned to Winnipeg in 
exti'Chiix, only to be sat upon by an ignorant commission, who tried 
hard — the effort to kill him and his party by neglect, having proved 
ineffectual — to wipe him out of existence, by refusing to pay either 
himself or his men, for the arduous duties admittedly well perform- 
ed. About this time another attempt to establish a Conservative 
daily paper was made. The newspaper in question was like Fon- 
seca's baby, called the Herald, and like it also, it soon died of star- 
vation. Conservative milk, at that time, was rather watery, and 
Alex. Begg, who was the insane individual, who started the paper, 


was just about as glad as Fonseca, when the thing came to an end. 
A few dejected printers out of a job, and Begg himself, with deep 
dejection, attended the funeral, while Fonseca, at an upper window, 
laughed as the procession went by, chuckling, because " he knew 
how it was himself." The Free Press felt very sorry for the fail- 
ure of this Daily I[< j e<iI<J, although it had no reason to do so. 

Cool Burgess and troupe visited Winnipeg and put in a short, 
but very successful s ason, at the City Hall, The reception coni- 
mitee who had the management of arrangements for receiving the 
Governor-General in a proper manner now went to work with a 
will, the following sub-committees were formed : 

The executive committee consisted of Hon. II. A. Davis, Senator 
Girard, Aid. Burrows, the Mayor, Aid. McMicken, Hon. Jos. 
Royal, and Mr. Bannatyne. Street decoration committee — Messrs. 
Alex. Begg, It. 1 >. Bathgate, J. H. Itowau, Aid. Conklin, Thomas 
Lusted, Aid. Brown, J. H. Ashdown, A. II. Bertrand, and Aid. 
Rice. Programme and Reception Committee — Messrs. William 
Hespeler, F. E. Cornish, 1). McArthur, S. Blanchard, Senator 
Sutherland, J. A. 1ST. Provencller, Thomas Nixon, Aid. McXee, Dr. 
Cowan, Dr. O'Donnell. Excursion Committee — Messrs. 1). M. 
Walker, W. Palmer Clarke, Aid. Jackson, Ceo. Brown, J. Balsillie, 
W. H. Lyon, James McLenaghen, W. F. Gouin, G. McMicken. 
Ball and Dejeuner Committee — Capt. Howard, Col. Osborne 
Smith, E. C. Jarvis, Aid. Logan, J. II. McTavish, P. Sutherland, 
G. B. Spencer, W. I). Taylor, Hon. Jos. Royal. Committee on 
Games — Hon. W. Kennedy, C W. Radiger, Hon. .Tames McKay, 
Aid. Alio way, More, Burrows, Dr. Schultz, A. F. Eden, and Dr. 
Young. On Friday, 3rd August, 1877, the garrison of Canadian 
regular miltia was disbanded at Fort Osborne, and Lieut. Col. 
W. Osborne Smith on the occasion issued the following " District 
Morning Order." 

" In taking leave of the force of Dominion troops on service in 
the North-West, on the occasion of their disbaudment to-day, the 
Deputy Adjutant General commanding the district desires to 
express to the officers, non-com. officers and men of the force the 
deep regret which he feels, at the necessity which parts them from 
his command. He desires to thank the men of the force for the 


general excellent conduct which they have shown, and for the 
credit which iheir behaviour and soldierly bearing has reflected on 
the command and the Canadian militia generally. 

"Coming here for the most part as raw recruits, the men leave 
as trained soldiers, fit to take their places side by side in the ranks 
with her Majesty's regular forces; and the officer commanding the 
district feels satisfied that, if ever the cause of their country 
requires it, the same spirit which animated the men to volunteer 
for the service originally, will he again found among them. 

" To each and all, the officer commanding the district conveys 
his heartiest good wishes for their future prosperity. 
W. OsnoiiNE Smith, Lt.-Col., 

I). A. G., Xo. 10 M. J)., 
Com. Pom. Forces in North- West 
The militia of the Province now consisted of Winnipeg Field 
Battery and the Winnipeg, Kildonan, and Emerson Infantry Com- 
panies. On Monday, August 6th, 1877, Lord Dufterin arrived at 
Fort Garry, in the steamer Minnesota, at ten o'clock in the fore- 
noon, and immediately great crowds began pouring towards that 
quarter to witness the reception. Mayor Kennedy went first on 
board the steamer, and soon after His Excellency, proceeded by his 
aide-de-camp, and accompanied by His Honor Lieut-Governor 
Morris, landed on the platform, and was received by the City 
Council. A carriage was in waiting, and when Lord Dufterin 
stepped into it to be conveyed to the City Hall, cheer upon cheer 
arose from the multitude of people. The Winnipeg Field Battery 
tired the appropriate salute of seventeen guns, and the AVinnipeg 
Infantry Company having formed in line, His Excellency before 
stepping into his carriage inspected the company, and expressed 
himself very much pleased with the appearance of the men. A 
procession was then formed, and slowly wended its way to the 
City Hall, passing through line arches erected in honor of the 
occasion. A platform and arch had been erected in front of the 
City Hall, and there a fitting address was read by the City Clerk, 
A. M. Brown, to which His Excellency re] .lied in his usual happy 
strain. Although there was a lack of arches on the streets, at the 
same time the citizens had ornamented the fronts of the houses 



and the telegraph posts along- the route being decorated with 
evergreens, the display was a very creditable one for our young 
city. The Governor-General after the reception in the City Hall 
and the ceremonies attending it, drove to Silver Height.-, to the 
residence of Donald A. Smith, which had been fitted up expressly 
for him during his stay in Manitoba. On the day following* his 
arrival in Winnipeg, the Mayor of the city received the following 

Silver Heights, 

August 6, 1877. 

" SlR,— I am instructed by His Excellency the Governor-General 
"to express to you his very great satisfaction with all the arrange- 
"ments made under the auspices of the Reception Committee, and 
"yourself, to enable the citizens of Winnipeg to welcome his 
"arrival amongst them. 

"The large concourse assembled, the beauty and appropriateness 
"of the decorations, the good order which prevailed, and the 
" universal loyalty displayed by all classes toward- her Majesty 
"in the person of her representative, have been most gratifying to 
"His Excellency, and will, doubtless, prove the happy augury of 
"the pleasure he anticipates from his residence in your neicdibor- 
" hood. 

" I have the honor to be, sir, 

"Your obedient servant, 
(^gned), - E. G. 1'. Littleton, 

" Governor-General's Secretary." 
His Woship, tlie Mayor of Winnipeg. 

His Excellency was accompanied by Lady Dufferin, Lady Helen 

Blackwood, and the Hon. Mrs. Littleton, and on Wednesday" Aug. 
7, the Vice-regal party witnessed the games played in their honor, 
but in the midst of them the rain began to pour, and the festivities 
were put .m end to for a time. The Lady Ellen arrived for the 
first time at Winnipeg in August, having been towed here by the 
steamer Minnesota. The Lady Ellen was brought from Toronto 
here by H. G. McMicken, and her machinery was fitted in Winnipeg. 
She has done. good service in these waters ever since. 

On Thursday, August 'Jth, a grand ball was given at Govern- 



ment House by Lieut. -Governor Morris in honor of Lord and Lady 
Dufterin; it was a magnificent spectacle, a large ball-room hand- 
somely decorated having been erected for the purpose. On Friday 
their Excellencies held a drawing-room at the City Hall, which was 
largely attended. Rooms had also been fitted up at the Govern- 
ment offices, where His Excellency received a number of prominent 
citizens, and on Monday, 13th August, addresses from the Presby- 
tery of Manitoba, Manitoba College, Diocesan Synod of Rupert's 
Land, County of Lisgar, and the Corporation of Kildonan and St. 
John's, were presented, to all of which suitable replies were received 
from Lord Dufferin. The same day their Excellencies attended the 
opening of the annual matches of the Manitoba Rifle Association, 
and on Tuesday, 14th, His Excellency laid the corner stone of the 
St. John's Ladies College, and in the evening the firemen of the 
city turned out in a torchlight procession in honor of His Excel- 
lency, the engine being gaily decorated for the occasion, and the 
citizens along the route giving pyrotechnic displays on their own 
account. The citizens ball the same evening was the finest enter- 
tainment of the kind ever given in Winnipeg. The city Hall was 
profusely decorated, but with great taste, His Excellency remarking 
on entering the room that he had witnessed more expensive decor- 
ations but nothing more beautiful. There were over oOO guests, 
and the ball altogether was a perfect success. We have not space 
to give a more extended notice of these festivities, but may say 
that they passed off most creditably for the city. 

Flat-boatmen were now compelled to take out licenses and the 
merchants generally taking a stand against them, they gradually 
gave way, and instead of selling from their boats on the river, they 
began to rent and build stores in the city. 

About this time Mr. F. E. Kew retired from the firm of Kew, 
Stobart & Co., and A. F. Eden became a partner, the new house 
being styled Stobart, Eden & Co. Mr. Kew had been connected 
with the English trade of this country for a great number of years ; 
the new film, however, seemed to have new vigor infused into it, 
for it gradually extended its business, until now it is second only 
to the H. B. Co. in its peculiar line of trade. The Western Fire 
^and Marine- Assurance Co. started an agency here in Sept., '77, 


Mr. G. F. Carruthers being placed in charge, with a local board 
consisting of A. G. B. Bannatyne and Geo. Brown, of Ontario 
Bank. About this time the city was visited by the Hon. I). Mills, 
Minister of Interior, and Hon. Mr. Pelletier, Minister of Agricul- 
ture, who were looking into the working of their respective depart- 
ments in this country. Several important changes were made, and 
a reduction of the start' of officials took place soon after their 
departure. Dick & Banning received in one lot during the fall of 
77, 350,000 feet of lumbet and 400,000 shingles, which will give 
some idea of the extent of their business. The Temperance Hall 
was dedicated on Thursday, the 27th Sept., '77, the Sons of Tem- 
perance, and the United Temperance Association taking part in the 
ceremonies. Lev. Mr. Bell gave the oration of the evening, and 
Mr. Nixon, to whose efforts the erection of the hall is mainly due, 
gave a statement of the financial condition of the enterprise. The 
hall cost $5, GOO and consists of a tine lodge-room upstairs, with 
ante-rooms attached, and a fine hall on the ground floor for concerts, 
&c. It is a fine building 32x72 and 28 feet high to the eaves, 
veneered with white 1 trick and is yet an ornament to the city. The 
British American Assurance Company now opened an agency in 
the city. A Law Student's Society was formed early in October, 
1877, when the following officers were elected: — President, Hon. 
Chief Justice Wood; 1st Vice, Hon. Jos. Royal; 2nd Vice, John 
Cameron, B.A., ; Corresponding Secretary, 1). MacGillivray ; Re- 
cording Secretary, Win. Laurie ; Treasurer, E. M. Wood ; Honorary 
Committee, the Puisine Judges and Benchers, and the Prothono- 
tary ; General Managing Committee : Messrs. Camoran, Mac- 
Gilliviay, Laurie, Wood, and Black. The St. Boniface woollen 
mills were burned out in October, '77, which was a great loss to 
the country. 

The ceremony of driving the first spike in the Pembina Branch 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, was performed on the 29th Sept., 
by His Excellency the Governor-General, and the Countess of Duf- 
ferin, at the station grounds, St. Boniface, in the presence of a fash- 
ionable gethering,' and the same day the dejeu her given by the 
citizens of Winnipeg, in honor of Lord and Lady Dufl'erin, took 
place. It was a grand affair, and was the last effort of the citizens 


to do honor to the representative of Her Majesty. We would like 
to give the eloquent speech of His Excellency, delivered by him 
on the occasion, as it was probably one of his greatest efforts during' 
his visit to Manitoba. Lord Dutferin took his departure on the 
evening of the same day, carrying with him the good wishes, the 
love, and respect, of all classes of the people of Manitoba. Lady 
Dufferin, by her kind and gentle manner, won the hearts of our 
people, as her husband had, their respect and admiration. 

An attempt to raise $25,000 on our debentures for drainage pur- 
poses and other improvement was defeated at the polls as fol- 
lows : — 


North Ward 2(5 7 

East Ward 10 87 

West Ward 23 34 

South Ward 3 40 

02 117 

On Tuesday, 9th October, the first locomotive ever brought into 
Manitoba arrived at Winnipeg, and great crowds of the citizens 
went down to witness the event. The steamer Selkirk, with a 
barge containing the locomotive and a number of flat cars, was 
handsomely decorated with Union Jacks, Stars and Stripes, ban- 
ners, &e. Steam was up on the locomotive, and what with its 
shrill whistling, and that of the steamer, the ringing of bells, and 
the mill whistles joining in the ehorus, there was a perfect babel of 
noise. A lady, Miss Racine, kept tolling the bell of the steamer, 
and was cheered lustily by the crowd. The Selkirk touched at 
No. 6 warehouse, and then steamed down to the landing below 
Point Douglas, where a track was laid, on which they ran the en- 
due and cars, and thus was landed the Hist locomotive ever 
brought to this Province. 

Larse shipments of wheat were being made about this time by 
R. Gerrie & Co. to Ogilvie <& Co., of the Ooderich Mills. The 
supply of meat required for the city at this time may be judged by 
the fact that one butcher firm occupying a stall in the City Hall 
Market, supplied to their customers an average of S,000 lbs of beef, 


700 lbs. of veal, 800 -lbs. of mutton, and 1,200 lbs. of pork weekly. 

Mis. Morris, wife of the Lieut.-Governor, left Winnipeg for 
Canada, accompanied by Mr. Becher, the Private Secretary, on Sat- 
urday, loth Oct., preparatory to the departure of Governor Morris, 
soon afterwards. Mayor Kennedy used his power to veto a grant 
of 8100 to the Manitoba Rifle Association, in (Jet., '77, because the 
majority of the Council was against it, but it had been passed 
while a number of the members of the Council were absent. 

The first shipment of Manitoba wheat, direct from Winnipeg to 
Europe, took place on Wednesday, 17th Oct., the consignors 
being If. Genie ; consignees, Barclay & Brand, Glasgow, Scotland. 

A Sunday School Convention took place about this time, in the 
Temperance Hall, and work of great importance was done in con- 
nection with the promotion of teaching the Gospel to the young. 
Alderman McMicken having resigned, an election took place in 
the East Ward, when Mr. T. Dunlop was elected, by acclamation, 
to serve for the balance of the year. 

In November a branch of the Bank of Montreal was opened in 
Winnipeg, and Mr. Campbell Sweeney appointed agent. The. 
offices of the institution being situated in a wing of the 11.15. Co. 
building, on Broadway. A muskrat was caught in the basement 
of Stobart & Eden's old store, a trap having been set for his rat- 
ship, and his capture effected. About this time three Chinese direct 
from the flowery kingdom, reached Winnipeg. The gentlemen of 
the party suffered respectively tinder the names of Charles Yam. 
and Fung Quong. The lady, however, who accompanied them, de- 
clined to have the euphony of her appellation tortured by any news- 
paper process. A large number of the friends of Mr. A. W. Pow- 
ell, teller of the Ontario Bank, entertained that gentleman to a 
farewell supper, at the Revere House, previous to his departure for 
Toronto. Captain Howard presided on the occasion, and Mr. Sed- 
ley Blanchard occupied the Vice chair. Among those present were 
A. Strang, -T. A. Peebles, A. R. Bannatyne, S. W. Trott, J. A. 
Grant, J. S. Melville, W. S. Souch, A. II. Ramsay, W.'D. Taylor, 
J. M. Macdonald, II. F. Champion, J. J. Cavanagh, Dr. Fisher, E. 
Armstrong, C. 1>. Rickards, J. O. Grahame, Thos. Watt, Frank 
Meyer, W. W. McMillan, D. F. Sprague, G. J. Wishart, John 


Breeden, Clias. X. Bell, and Walter Nursey. A most enjoyable 
evening was spent. In November the brick block, erected on Main 
street, by Messrs. Stobart, Eden & Co., at a cost of $20,000, was 
completed, and as a monument of the growing thrift and enterprise 
of our city, spoke volumes for the march of progress which had so 
practically and earnestly set in. Space will not admit of an ex- 
tended account of the structure, the following facts will, however, 
serve to convey an idea to the stranger of the solidity and extent 
of the. building. The entire length of the block was something 
over 100 feet, with a width of ^-"> feet ; the main portion 70 x 33, 
being three stories in height, and the rear portion 30 x 33 feet, one 
storey with a basement, the entire length of the building. The 
native white brick was used in its construction, and with galvan- 
ized iron cornices, and window caps, massive east iron supporting 
columns and pilasters, and magnificent plate glass front, it pre- 
sented to the gaze of our citizens an appearance typical of Chicago 
or other large cities. 

On the the 22nd of November, after a somewhat noteworthy 
journey — especially sensational at Emerson, on the frontier, where 
the Emigration Agent allowed his zeal of welcome to overcome his 
good sense — His Honor Lieutenant-Governor Cauchon arrived in 
Winnipeg. Owing to various canards that had gone the rounds of 
the American press, as to the welcome likely to be accorded M. 
Cauchon on his arrival in this country, his advent in our midst was 
wanting to some extent in the dignity due to such an auspicious 

The ladies having taken in hand the honorable work of collect- 
ing fur the General Hospital, over SI, 000 was the result of their 
charitable efforts. In December the " Ariel " Quadrille Club, gave 
way to the "Assemblies" and continued under the change of 
name to be a more popular gathering than ever. 

A man named Weir, a carpenter, was robbed, whilst sleeping, of 
$700, and the thief escaped detection. Mr. McLenaghen, of this 
city, with Mr. Stephenson, of Montreal* while out driving, were 
thrown out of their buggy, and received — if not serious injury — 
damage that kept them prisoners to their bedrooms for some days. 
On Tuesday, the 2nd of December, the Hon. Alex. Morris, with 


Miss Morris, left Winnipeg for Perth, ( >nt. On the Saturday pre- 
vious a levee, was held at Government House, on which occasion a 
large number of citizens took advantage of the opportunity to pay 
thier farewell respects to the ex-Lieut. -( Jovernor. 

On Thursday, the 6th December, Madame Cauchon, who had 
been in a critical condition ever since her arrival in the Province, 
passed to her last rest. Though a stranger to the majority of our 
citizen*, the deepest sympathy was manifested by all classes of the 
community for the bereaved family, not the less so, on account 
of her reputation for many excellent virtues, which though her 
sojourn amongst us had been so brief, were generally accredited to 
the deceased lady. 

The suits of H. L. Reynolds against the cjty for damage sus- 
tained by Hood, were now paid, and amounted, inclusive of costs — 
which alone aggregated $636.70 — to §2,461.05. 

Aid. Burrows in December resigned his seat as Alderman for the 
» South Ward, and Mr. Dunlop was elected in his stead by aclama- 
tion for the remainder of the term. Mr. d. K. Tetu about this time 
was the victim of a murderous attack. On his way home from 
Mr. Gouin's residence in roar of the Custom House, about seven 
o'clock in the evening, lie was suddenly attacked by an unknown 
person, and stabbed in the breast. He parried the blow with his 
arm, which had he nut done, there is little doubt but that the 
wound would have proved, if not fatal, at least serious: as it was 
lie received an ugly flesh wound in the left breast, numerous 
bruises, and a severe fright. His assailant escaped, and to this day 
no clue to his identity has been forthcoming. 

The funeral of the late Madame Cauchon was largely attended 
notwithstanding the inclemency of the weather; previous to which, 
during the time that the body lay in state at Government House, 
numerous sympathizers ] aid their last respects to the deputed. 
Archbishop Tache preached an eloquent and affecting sermon upon 
this melancholy occasion to an immense concourse of people, who 
assembled at the cathedral of St. Boniface to participate in the 
mournful ceremonies. 

The council of the University of Manitoba met on Thursday, the 
13th December, '77, whin there were present: The Chancellor, the 


Vice-Chancellor, Archbishop Tache, lie v. Vicars Forget, O'Meara, 
Black, Matheson, Dugast, Bryce, Lavoie, Cowley, Robertson, Ger- 
man, and Hart, and Messrs. Young, Dubuc, Bain, McMicken, 
Cowan, Bannatyue, Cameron, Provencher, Tasse, and Jarvis. E. 

C. Jarvis was appointed registrar, and D. McArthur, bursar. 

At a meeting of the School Board, after considerable discussion 
and some display of feeling on the part of a few of the speakers, 
Mr. Fletcher, of Toronto, was elected to fill the position of Principal 
of the Public School. 

To give some idea of the amount of building done in the city of' 
Winnipeg during the year 1ST", and to show the rapid strides the 
place was taking towards becoming a city in deed as well as 
words, the following figures will carry convincing proof. About 
80 buildings of various descriptions were erected and completed, 
which cost in the aggregate something over $250,000. These 
figures do not include a number of buildings in course of con- 
struction, and which will necessarily appear on the list of opera- 
tion for the year 1878. A quarter of a million is surely not a bad 
exhibit for a city not then even in its teens, and still with all the. 
rush and enterprise so characteristic of the country, and its 
heterogeneous population, the good work still went on. 

Lt.-Col. Peebles, lately supply officer of the regular militia 
garrison at Fort Osborne, during December received a permanent 
appointment on the staff No. lo Military District, as paymaster- 
and storekeeper, and much to the gratification of his many friends. 

An Apron festival in aid of the hospital fund came off on the 
27th December, and in netting the handsome sum of S4iM) for that 
institution appropriately brought the Winnipeg season of '77 to a 
creditable close. 



'Hoi Polloi — An Angel of Light— Festivals — Hioh Jinks— A Vernal Winter 
—Receipts and Expenditure — St. John the Evangelist — Gastronomic 
— a peripatetic goldsmith— tln-types — wholesale trade— harry 
Pearson — Paeliamant— Temperance Wave— Hostile Victuallers— 
New Fire Hall — Fire Brigade — St. John's Ladies School— Miss Hart 
Davies — A V>m Order — Rifle Association — Criminal Statistics — A 
Long Circuit — Robert Stalker — Pembina Branch — Grain Elevator— 
Trinity Church Organ— A Howling Swell— Hon. Gilbert McMickks 
Imports and Extorts — Curliana— Races — Hatches, Matches, and 
Despatches — Postal — Prorogation — Notable Legislation — W. H. 
Disbrowe — I). IT. Campbell — Chief of Police Powek — Celestial— Rail- 
ways—A Novel Sermon— Rossin Hoi >k — Bishop McLean — The-Gate- 
way ofthk West — Canada Life Assurance Co. — Tiik Southern Routk 
— Pharmaceutical — Wheat Operations — Dodd& Co. — 17th of Ireland 
— Early Navigation— A Peculiar Robber — Mrs. Finney — The Rostrum 
— A Valuable Cargo — Pilgrims — Battle, Murder and Sudden Death 
* — Winnipeg and Western Transportation Co.— a Reliable Horoscope. 

On Wednesday, the 2nd of January, 1878, the New Year was 
appropriately entered upon, looking at it from a Winnipeg stand- 
point, by a mass meeting, which took place in the City Hall, the 
Mayor in the chair, and George Hani, secretary. The theme of 
discussion upon this occasion was municipal matters, and the 
various aspirants for municipal honors took advantage of the 
opportunity, and spread themselves considerably for the delectation 
■of the electors. Speeches were made by Alderman Fonseca, Sin- 
clair, More, Jackson, McXee, Dunlop and Burrows, and by F. C. 
Cornish and others. Some merriment was excited by our worthy 
fellow-citizen Fonseca, who humorously alluded to his being an 
" Angel of light." A discussion of a somewhat accrimonious nature 
took place upon the civic expenditure and our finances in general, 
but the meeting dispersed in due course, and, as a local paper 
graphically wound up its report of the proceedings, " with no one 

Holy Trinity Sunday School festival was held in the Temperance 
Hall on New Years Eve and was largely attended. Santa Glaus 
and others of our amateur talent distinguishing themselves. This 


class of amusements in town served to keep our jeun esse d'oree in 
a high state of good humor, which the humidity of the weather 
inioht otherwise have dampened. Rain fell during the month, and 
frogs piped their Christmas carols in many an open pool, a mallard 
was shut just outside the city, violets and heartseases were in lull 
bloom, ploughing was considered a pastime, and the old year went 
out on wheels. 

The receipts of the city of Winnipeg for the year 1S77 amounted 
to SG: , .,8l: , >.."i:J, the expenditure was §65,660.67. 

At the festival of St. John the Evangelist, a supper was sub- 
sequently served at the Pacific Hotel, on which occasion Bro. E. 
(;. Uonklin, retiring W.M., was presented by the brotherhood with 
a valuable Fast Master's jewel and a suitable address. At the 
Knox Church festival Prof. P>ryee announced that through the 
exertions of IJev. Mr. Robertson £12,000 had been raised for the 
new edifice, and indulged in some prophecy which must gratify 
him to see fulfilled to-day. About this time oui deservedly 
respected friend, Geo. D. Xorthgraves moved north with his 
illuminated clock and stock of jewellery, and entered into occupa- 
tion of the -tore immediately south of Ashdown's block, and now 
in possession of his late co-worker, Thos. Chapman, and Duttinand 
Casswell having united their talents entered into the photographic 
line on a more extensive scale than formerly. Mr. W. H. Lyon 
haviim decided to devote his energies to the wholesale trade 
exclusivelv, disposed of the retail portion of Ids business, which 
was purchased bv Harry Pearson, who continued to conduct the 
business in the old stand. 

On Thursday, the 10th of January, the opening of the Fourth 
Session of the Second Parliament took place, on which occasion the 
noor of the house fairly blazed with the presence of a crowd of well- 
dressed ladies. The chamber was effectively decorated, and the 
proceedings went off with greater eclat than usual. The speech 
from the throne was read by Lieut-Governor Cauchon, who on this 
occasion made his first public appearance in Manitoba in his guber- 
natorial capacity. If lacking nerve, lie acquitted himself with his 
customary dignity. 

The Temperance wave having reached Manitoba about this time, 


a meeting was held in the Temperance which some of our lead- 
ing Jivines and other disciples of prohibition took occasion to address 
the citizens. Amongst other resolutions, submitted to the audience, 
and passed, was one advocating steps for the " total abolition of 
saloons," and as this was a measure calculated to upset the plans 
of some of the Winnipeg victuallers, it is not extraordinary that a 
contra-influence was brought to bear to defeat the end thusarrived 
at. However, the first agitation in this direction, was now a matter 
of history, and consequent congratulation to the promoters, and to 
its direct influence may doubtless be traced the changes subsquent- 
ly effected in the city by-laws, controlling the issue of tavern 

The formal opening of the new Fire Hall was celebrated the 
same day, by the members of the Fire Brigade. The festivities 
consisted of a supper, which was laid out in an upper room of the 
building, which was tastefully decorated for the occasion, and doubt- 
less with some appreciation for the eternal fitness of things, together 
with commendable acknowledgement of the temperance principles, 
theii being so strongly advocated, the firemen elected to conduct 
their supper on a strictly cold water basis, and tho spirits were 
rigidly excluded, the hilarity of the proceedings appeared in no de- 
gree to be damped, as the evening was an enjoyable one, without 
any qualifi cation. Speeches of a congratulatory and patriotic na- 
ture, with the usual quota of songs, were in order after supper, and 
the guests separated about midnight. The Fire Hall, which to- 
gether with being one of our most useful buildings, is also one 
of the most ornamental, is built of white brick. The engine-room, 
proper upon the ground floor, is 42x44 feet, with a 16 ft. ceiling, 
concrete floor, etc., with ashpits, and all the usual and modern ap- 
pliances. The tower in which the alarm bell is suspended, at an 
altitude of 59 feet, is 69 feet in height. The contractor was Mr. 
Jos. Woods ; the architect Mr. Thos. Parr, and the cost of the 
building, completed, was about $7,000, The following is a list of 
the officers and members of the tire brigade, at the time of the 
opening of the hall : — 

Chief Engineer, McMillan ; Ass.-Chief, James McDonald ;Sec- 
Treas., W. H. Saunders ; Captains Alex. Brown and Wm. -Code ; 


Lieutenants, J. R. Cameron, George Treherne, Pearson McPhail ; 
Engineer, John McKeelniie ; Asst. -Engineer, Fred Barry ; Firemen, 
W. A. Fisher, C. Houseley, 0. M. Murray, W. G. Johnston, Alex. 
Kennedy, John Gates, \Y. G.Maxwell, J. Johnston, Win. Morri- 
son, Jno. Grieves, G. \Y. Campbell, J. K. Robinson, Mcintosh, T. 
B. Godfrey, A. T. McXab, J. Wilton, A. Pratt, A. Young, James 
Levi, T. I). Caulfield, J. Mighton, Win. Seach, W. Lindsay, It. 
Leckie, Still, Shearer,, Paul, Kelson and Marcom. 

The St. John's College Ladies School, being now completed, and 
ready for occupation ; circulars were about this time issued, giving 
all necessary information, for those who were anxious to avail them- 
selves of the educational advantage thus otiered to their daughters. 
Miss Hart Davies (now Mrs. Alfred Cowley) was the Lady Prin- 
cipal, and with an accomplished staff of assistants, hid fair to attain 
for the institution, the desired degree of confidence and popular- 
ity, hoped for by its most sanguine supporters. How fully this 
happy result has been accomplished can be determined by the 
educational status that the Ladies College rejoices in to-day. 

^The cost of the school, including site, architect, contract, piano, 
etc., in January, 77, reached §19,000, which, more particularly 
owing to the disinterested efforts and Liberality on the part of the 
Bishop of Ruperts Land, (the President) the Board of Governors 
wereenabled to liquidate. 

During this month we hear of our friend, Thos. Lusted, in the 
character of host and entertainer, when he invited his employees 
and a few outside guests to partake of supper at theLevere House, 
and, when further in a commendable spirit of tit for tat, the em- 
ployees presented the " boss " with an inscribed pipe and a walk- 
ing-stick, as tokens of esteem. The utmost cordiality prevailed in 
Winnipeg in these days, and " socials " were in full blast, hut to 
illustrate practically that business was not overlooked in the sea- 
sonable pursuit of pleasures, we would state that about this time 
a resident wholesale grocer filled an order, amounting to S2l),U00 ! 
and embracing nineteen different lines of articles, and these articles 
were for shipment east, for the railway line. 

A number of our merchants were engaged pretty extensively in 
buying wheat, and Mr. ( )gilvie, of A. W. Ogilvie & Co., of Mon- 


treal, attracted by the field for speculation appeared upon the 
scene, and prosecuted a pretty lively business on a basis of " 60 
cents cash for Xo. 1 clean wheat." 

The annual meeting of the Manitoba Rifle Association took place 
in January when the following directorate were elected : — Presi- 
dent, Col. Smith; Captain Mcintosh, 1st Vice-President; Captain 
Carruthers, 2nd Vice-President ; Sec.-Treas., K ( 1. Conklin ; Council, 
Messrs. Lindsay, Smith, Mclntyre, McMillan, Strang, Doidge, Van 
Renssalaer, Young, MeEwan, and Gillies. 

The gaol record for the year '77, gives the following statistical 
facts which will lie found interesting. The total number of appre- 
hensions was 84, convictions 73, of these 02 could read and write. 
There was an increase of six over the number of prisoners of the 
year '70, but a remarkable falling off from the numbers of previous 
years. The nationality of these culprits was as follows ; — Mani- 
toba, 28; English Canadians, 15; French Canadians, 6; England, 
9; Ireland, 10; Scotland, 5; Germany, 2; Switzerland, 1; Den- 
mark, 5; Siberia, 1 ; Iceland, 2; Sweden, 1 ; United States, 9. 

On the 24th of January the Canada Pacific Telegraph line was 
working in one continuous circuit fiom Winnipeg to Edmonton, a 
distance of 800 miles, for the first time. This was considered to 
be the longest circuit without a repeater on the continent, and such 
is worthy of comment. Robert Stalker and S. II. Caswell now 
dissolved partnership as harness-makers, the former -till continuing 
in the business, the benefit of which he still enjoys. A hopeful 
indication of railway progress now gladdened the hearts of the 
people in the shape of an announcement over the signature ofThos. 
Nixon, calling for 105,000 railway ties for distribution along the 
Pembina Branch of the C. P. R., and railroad agitation was again in 
order. The "Royal Opera House" was now transformed from the 
ridiculous into the practical, and the old Manltoban building at last 
became a warehouse for grain. At a vestry meeting held in Holy 
Trinity Church on the evening of January the 25th, it was decided 
to purchase a $3,000 organ, the instrument which to-day occasion- 
ally floods that structure with its remarkable diapason. In the 
latter part of January the Hon Gilbert McMicken, Deputy Re- 
ceiver-General, severed his connection with the civil service of 


Canada, after a term of thirty-one years service, seven of which 
had been spent in Manitoba, he merited the consideration he 
received at the hands of the Government and earned the super- 
annuation allowance upon which he retired. 

The following comparative statement of the imports at the port 
of Winnipeg for the quarter ending 31st December, 1870 and '77, 
are not wanting in interest : — 

For the quarter ending Hist December, 1876, imports, SI 49,901 ; 
home consumption, $161,560; duty, $23,768.40. 

For the quarter ending 31st December, 1877 — Imports, SI 84,935; 
home consumption, 8205,469 ; duty, $38,279.84. 

Curling at this season was indulged in by those of our citizens 
who were addicted to " souping her up," and the rink adjacent to 
the Central School was the scene of many an exciting contest by 
the knights of the besom. A great trotting race under the direction 
of Messrs. Alloway & Nevins came off on the ice of Red River on 
the 30th of January, when Kittson's Manitoba Girl took three 
consecutive reats, and left four other of the local pacers to tight for 
second money. Illustrative of the fact that Winnipeg has always 
sustained its reputation for being an accented place, we cannot 
omit mentioning that at a winter festivity at Point Douglas, a 
dance, a birth, a christening, a fight and a death, all occurred at the 
same seance, and a burial took place a few hours after. Mr. A. J. 
Belch about this time was appointed Assistant Agent of Dominion 
Lands for Manitoba. To give some idea of the growth of the cor- 
respondence of the city, necessitated by the development of trade, 
we can state that it was estimated by the Post office officials, that 
over 300,000 letters had been posted in the Winnipeg office during 
the year past, the letters alone in one week showing an increase 
over the corresponding week of the year previous of 2,000. 

On Saturday, the 2nd of February, the House was prorogued by 
His Honor the Lieut.-Governor, with the customary ceremonials ) 
when thirty-seven bills received the Royal assent, notably amongst 
which was an Act, extending the Wild Land Tax, the amendment 
to the election law, whiclfinvolved the repeal of the ballot, and the 
Liquor License Act. The passage of the first of these was a sub- 
ject of much congratulation to those of our population sufficiently 



disinterested to look at it from a material standpoint, as beneficial 
to the state. In addition to the old law which imposed a tax 
upon the lands of non-residents, the .new Act provided that the 
lands of residents should he subjected to a similar imposition, ant] 
further provided for a tax of five cents an acre upon Hudson Bay 
lands— a piece of legislation which, by the way, was afterwards ap- 
pealed against by the company, upon the ground that the action of 
our Provincial Legislature in the matter was nltra vires. The re- 
peal of the ballot was probably nothing but a convenient and tem- 
porary measure. The Liquor License Act was as similar to the 
Crooks' Act of Ontario as the circumstances of the country per- 

Alive to the necessities of the spring trade, we find Mr. AY~. H. 
Disbrowe making active preparations for the busy season. A large 
assortment of seeds stored in his warehouse, and an extensive stock 
of agricultural implements. W. H. Disbrowe first established his 
business in Dreevers block, Notre Dame street east, in '76, but 
soon an increasing trade drove him into hunting more commodious 
quarters, and in Oct., of the same year, he built the store (now oc- 
cupied by Knight & Crawford) opposite the City Hall, and to 
which place he transferred his stock in trade. In Feb., D. W. 
Campbell was appointed jailer, in the Winnipeg jail, in place of E. 
Power, at the same time the Litter named received Ins com- 
mission as chief of our Provincial Police. Two Chinese laun- 
dries now commenced operations in the city, and nine watermen 
dedicated their services, prompted, of course, by a philanthropic re- 
gard for the cleanliness of the people. At a curling match, which 
took place between Old Countrymen and Canadians^ and on which 
occasion the Old Countrymen were victorious, we find the follow- 
ing gentlemen comprising the two rinks :— 


W. R. Xursey, W. X. Kennedy, 

A. Davies Mark Fortune, 

Jas. McDonald, L. Erb, 

A. Brown, (ski},)— 22 G. D. Northgraves, (skip)— 17 

D. McArthur, H. Archibald, 

11. P. Keith, C. Sweeney, 


G. Murray, Thos. Howard, 

D. Young, (skip)— 24 A. P. Denholm, (skip)— 9 
About this time the articles of Incorporation of the Duluth & 
Winnipeg Railroad Company, were published in the Minnesota 
p a p ers — capital stock was placed at four millions. The men whose 
names were appended to the article, all belonging to Duluth, with 
one exception, and he hailed from Superior City, Wisconsin. The 
construction of the road exists only in imagination. The Rev. J. A. 
Campbell preached a sermon on Sunday, Dee. 15, in the Bethel 
M. E. Church, in defence of the saloon keepers, when he chose for 
his text the following words : — 

" A friend of publicans and sinners," Matt. II, xix. 
He advocated legal prohibition. 

Advertisements now appeared calling for tenders for grading, 
bridging and track laying the C. P. R. from St. Boniface to 
Emerson, and for 93,000 lineal feet of square timber and 32,000 
feet of flatted timber, and 100,000 feet of planking, and as this 
appeared to till the bill for the completion of the Pembina Branch, 
railway connection was looked upon as an immediate certainty. 
Wrieht's block having been enlarged and a portion fitted up as a 
hotel, it was formally opened on the 1st March, under the name of 
the Rossin House. The planing mill erected in the summer of '77 
by Smith & Melville, was purchased by John Sutherland, who took 
steps to prepare it for the spring campaign. The Bishop of Sas- 
katchewan, whilst on a visit to Montreal, thus expressed himself in 
regard to Winnipeg : 

"In 1866 it was nothing more than a backwoods village con- 
" taining about 200 settlers. ***** Xow 
" Winnipeg was a city of over 6,000 inhabitants. In the first seven 
" years of its existence, dating from 1870, it had increased more in 
" its population than had the city of Chicago in the first ten years 
" of its existence. Now it had churches, banks, schools, manufac- 
" tories, and its mercantile men were equal to any in energy, that 
" he had met either in Canada or the United States. He could 
"not but think that it had a great destiny before it, and it could be 
" called with truth the ' gateway ' of the North West, it was destined 
" to become a most prosperous city." 


The Canada Life Assurance Company established an agency in 
Winnipeg in March, 78, with the Rev. Edward Morrow as their 
resident agent for the Province. 

No. 4 warehouse, the property of the H. B. Co., on the banks of 
the Assiniboine having been considered — standing as it did on the 
brink of the river banl. — to be in danger by the spring floods, wu.> 
moved to the top of the embankment, no slight undertaking when 
it is stated that it was a massive log structure 100 feet by 60 ; it 
was raised upwards !.">! feet, and carried back 120 feet, and the 
actual time occupied in its moving was little over one day. Mr. 
J. B, Clarke was the contractor. Xo little interest was manifested 
by the citizens of Winnipeg on reading the report of Mr. Marcus 
Smith., C. E., as embraced in the blue-book of the Minister of 
Public Works of Canada, on the vexed question of the C. P. R. 
route south of Manitoba Lake. Mr. Smith condemned the southern 
route on professional grounds, and considerable disappointment was 

The court of Queen's Bench Mas opened 5th March, the docket 
on this occasion was not a heavy one. On the 7th the Phar- 
maceutical Association of the Province of Manitoba met in the 
Government buildings, on the call of the Provincial Secretary, in 
accordance with the law, when the first council of the Association 
was elected as follows: — Messrs. James Stewart, J. E. Caldwell, 
and Win. Whitehead. Miss Gibb, whose services were much 
appreciated by the congregation of Christ Church, of which she 
was the organist, was waited upon by the Rev. Canon O'Meara and 
Mrs. Mercer, who, on behalf of the frequenters of that church, 
presented her with a handsome testimonial in recognition of her 
efforts. A Ladies Temperance Union Society was organized this 
month, with Mrs. G. F. Newcomb as president, and the Provincial 
Lodge of the United Temperance Association held their annual 
meeting about the same time, on which occasion the rather startling 
announcement was made by one of the speakers, that the computed 
consumption of liquor in the Dominion was about 40,000,000, 
or ten gallons for every soul, and that the drinking public of 
Winnipeg indulged in the luxury to the extent of §16T>,000 per 
annum. Mr. Prud'homme, of the Hotel du Canada, gave a grand 


housewarming about this time, and the usual quota of "surprise 
parties" kept most of our housekeepers busy. 

A large amount of wheat changed hands during this month, 
nearly every merchant in town dabbling more or less in the com- 
modity. The Ross brothers now formed a law partnership, and 
continued to conduct their business in the chambers, over Dr. 
Schultz's office. The Royal Commission which had been engaged 
for some weeks in investigating the alleged Indian frauds, complet- 
ed their labor on Wednesday, the loth of March. On the same, day 
Napoleon Beaulieu, when attempting to cross the river to St. Boni- 
face, whilst walking on the ice, broke through and was drowned. 

A railway fever having once more seized upon the people, and a 
citizens committee appointed to agitate with the Ottawa authorities, 
the following telegrams were produced at the meeting held in the 
City Council Chamber, Mr. Sinclair, D. L. S., in the chair. 

Winnipeg, 14th March, 78. 
Hon. D. A. Smith, Ottawa :— 

"Winnipeg does not want Southern route Pacific, unless crossing 
"here. We want Government aid for railway Winnipeg westward. 
" See telegram to .Mr. Mills." 

Duncan Sinclair, 


March 14, 78. 
Hon. David Mills, Ottawa :— 

" Winnipeg and settlers along route from Winnipeg westward 
"would vote bonus equal to Government iands, had lands not been 
"taken up. Will Government make provision to supplement that 
" bonus by lands not on route or money, and to what extent." 

Duncan Sinclaiu, 

"A mass meeting of the Liberal Conservatives took place in the 
"Cfty Hall, on Friday, loth March, .Air. D. M. Walker in the chair, 
"when a Liberal Conservative Association was organized, and 
" seventy-eight persons enrolled themselves as members. On the 
same day the citizens Ex-Railway Committee met and despatched 
the following telegram tu Hon. D. A. Smith, Ottawa. 


*■ Colonization Bill, now before House, is unfavorable to our in- 
terests, particularly in regard to railway, west from here ; try to 
improve it ; secure co-operation of the members ; answer." 

Dodd & Co. having purchased the entire stock of Messrs. Hig- 
gins & Young's boots and shoes, and having leased the building 
adjoining H. & Y.'s, and then occupied by them as a shoe store, re- 
moved from their old stand, opposite the Post Office, and entered 
into business m the new premises, upon a more extensive scale 
than ever. On the 17th of Ireland, St. Patrick's Day was celebra- 
ted by the National Society, with a concert in the City Hall, which 
proved a most successful affair. On the 24th the steamer Mani- 
toba arrived from Fisher's Landing, the first boat of the season, and 
the earliest on record. 

The following are the dates of the arrival of the first boat at the 
port of Winnipeg since 1870 : — 
In 71, the Selkirk April 28th. 

" 72, " " May 6th. 

" 73, " " May 3rd. 

"74, " " April 28th. 

'• 75, " " " 30th. 

" 76, Minnesota " 25th. 

" 77, Manitoba « 23rd. 

" 78, " March 22nd. 

On the night of the last Saturday in March, the office of Mr. 

Thos. Nixon, Dominion Government paymaster, was entered by 

burglars, and what made the affair one of the most remarkable of 


its kind in the annals of Winnipeg, was that there was, positively 

nothing of any intrinsic value for any ordinary burglar to covet. 
The office was, as it still is, situated on the ground floor of Hes- 
peler's brick block. A noise was heard below about midnight by 
Mr. Hespeler and his son, who resided overhead, a search was in- 
stituted, and a man discovered just as he was making a hasty exit 
through the front door. No relics save a screw driver and an inch 
or two of tallow candle, were forthcoming to cast any light upon 
the identity of the robber, and to this day, the whole proceeding is 
shrouded in mystery. Cupboards had been ransacked, and books 
strewn upon the floor, but as no intimation has ever been afforded 


the public of anything missing, the burglar must be honorably ac- 
quitted of theft. Mr. Nixon was absent at the time at Ottawa, 
undergoing examination at the hands of a parliamentary commit- 
tee, and there were not wanting those of his friends who endeavor- 
ed to excite sympathy on his behalf, by circulating the theory that 
the whole affair was part of a concerted plot, planned by certain 
persons inimical to his interests, who sought to jeopardize his po- 
sition, by possessing themselves of papers necessary to his justi- 
fication. From that day to this no clue to the robber has been 
found, or any way, made public. 

In February, of '78, Mis. Finney, well known to most Winni- 
peggers, arrived in this city, and located in our midst. A stranger 
to Mrs. Finney's antecedents would hardly credit that she landed in 
the city with but $40 in cash, all told. Yet such is the case. 
She rented the stand which she still occupies, on Notre Dame 
Street, close to the telegraph office, and opened up a second-hand 
furniture store. Times, however, were dull, and a few dollars 
only were left of the nest egg, when a lucky turn in the wheel of 
fortune brought prosperity. A rushing business ensued, furnituie 
changed hands like smoke, reach-me-downs came to the rescue, 
and this day of grace, Mrs. Finney could not be bought out for 
$5,000. So much for perseverance and Nor- West opportunities. 

On the 1st April, the Prince Rupert started up the Assiniboine, 
it being free of ice. On the 5th, Chief-Justice Wood lectured before 
the Militia Institute, on "Self Reliance," before a large and appre- 
ciative audience. About this time telephonic communication was 
established between the custom-house and No 6 warehouse, which 
facilitated the work between these establishments to a considerable 
extent, and was due to private enterprise. On the 7th, Billy Smith 
the pioneer flat-boatman, arrived with a fleet of barges from Por- 
tage la Prairie, the first of the season. His cargo consisted of 
1,200 sacks of Hour, and five tons of chopped feed and potatoes. 
On his return from a visit to the old country, Mr. Eden brought 
with him some very valuable dogs, with the view of improving 
the canine blood in Manitoba. His pack consisted of two Gordon 
setters, a pointer, and a fox-terrier, the latter being, we believe, the 
first of its breed ever brought into the province. The largest ship- 


ment of any kind ever made from Manitoba, was taken by the 
International in April, when she loaded over 100 tons of wheat 
from Bannatyne's warehouse, consigned to David Douse & Co., 
in bond for exportation to Europe. The first large hatch of im- 
migrants, season '78, arrived by the steamer, on Wednesday, 17th 
April. The party consisted of over 400 souls. 

On Friday, 19th April, our citizens were disturbed from the 
peace that was — and still is — wont to surround them, by the new? 
of the murder of Daniel Bell, a cabin boy of the steamer Manitoba, 
which had happened during the proceeding night at a low bagnio, 
in the "sheds" on MeDermott's Mats, and by the narration of the 
cold-blooded incidents in connection therewith, excited the indigna- 
tion and sympathy of the whole community, which was exaggerated 
still more when a few days after, through the active services of 
some settlers across the river, the supposed murderer, John Gribbon, 
was arrested and lodged in gaol. 

About this time application was made for letters patent of incor- 
poration of the "Winnipeg and Western Transportation Company'' 
(limited). The objects sought being to enable the company to cany 
on a freighting business by steamboats, etc., upon the Red, Assini- 
boine, and Saskatchewan Rivers, and upon Lakes Winnipeg, 
Manitoba, and Winnipegosis and their tributaries, in the Province 
of Manitoba, the District of Kee-wa-tin, and the X. W. Territories, 
the city of Winnipeg to be the chief place of business. The 
amount of the capital stock was placed at $50,000 in one thousand 
shares. The applicants were as follows : — John Turnbull, of Mon- 
treal, merchant; Uhas. W. Black, of Montreal, accountant; A. C 
B. Bannatyne, of Winnipeg, merchant ; Hon. Jas. McKay, St. 
James, contractor; J. H. Ashdown, Winnipeg, merchant; W. H. 
Lyon, Winnipeg, merchant; E. V. Holcombe, St. Paul, Minn., 
steamboatman ; Sedley Blanchard, Winnipeg, Barrister-at-Law ; of 
whom W. H. Lyon, Sedley Blanchard, E. Y. Holcombe, John 
Turnbull, and Charles W. Black were to be the Provisional Directors. 

It will be seen by this that push and enterprise was fast be- 
coming synonymous with the name of Winnipeg, and that our 
citizens were working with diligence to mature the coveted degree 
of development, that the horoscope then cast, has shown to-day to 
have been no idle flight of fancy. 



Pilgrims— Fort Osborne — Dynamite — Holy Trinity Vestry— Framfari— 
Wheat — Wreck of the Swallow — General Hospital — A Ruction — 
Orange Young Britons— Navigation of Ass i si no inf. — A Catholic 
Pastoral — Real Estate — Murder — City Drainage — Society St. Jean 
Baptiste — Political Caucuses — Dufferin I'ark— I'i.-iioi- Machray— : 
Steam Ferry — Circus — Winnipeg Field Battery— Jas. H. Rowan, C.E. 
— Accident to Dr. Schultz— Organic — A Boss Blizzard— Manitoba 
Wave — C. D. Richards and E. W. Jarvis — The Parisians — Liberal 
Conservatives— Mr. Alex. Morris — Billy-Goats — More Progress — 
Artful " Dodgers "—Militia— City Finances — Manitoba Telegraph 
— Electric — Col. Dennis — Elections— Business — Smith— Morris — In- 
dignant Protests — Oysters — Appointments — Mr. K. W. Prittie — Snow 
Shoes — A New Premier— Norquay's Cabinet — Mr. S. L. Bedson — 
Railways — "Quiz " — Manitoba " Gazette " — The Lart Spike — Con- 


Owing to the unprecedented influx of strangers, the vacant 
barrack room, at Fort Osborne, was thrown open about this time 
for the accommodation of immigrants, and as every succeeding day 
it received a fresh consignment, " things " became plethoric ; work 
on sec. 15, C.P.R. necessitated a large amount of explosives, and on 
one occasion a barge containing about 12,000 lbs. of nitro-glycer- 
ine, 1,000 lbs. dynamite, and 14,500 lbs. Yolney powder, arrived 
in port for this purpose. The annual vestry meeting of the con- 
gregation of Holy Trinity Church was held in April, when the fol- 
lowing officers were elected for the ensuing year : — Rectors War- 
den, 6. F. Carruthers ; Peoples Warden. R. H. Hunter ; Delegates 
to Synod, Messrs. Geo. McTavish, G. B.Spencer, and A. H. Whit- 
cher, Select Vestrymen, Messrs. Geo. McTavish, Spencer, Thos. 
Howard, Rolph, Doupe, Rickards, Geo. Clements, Jones, A. Strang, 
LeCappellain, Shelton, and Bailey. Though not a Winnipeg item, 
it may be interesting to note that the Framfari , an Icelandic 
paper, published at Gimli, Keewatin, had a circulation of GOO, 
and was on the list of <mr Winnipeg papers' exchanges. To show 
Jiow alive we were at this time in handling grain, this fact will con-., 
clusively prove, Higgins & Young bagged, tied, addressed, and ship- 
ped, on board the Selkirk, 2,100 bushels of wheat, consigned to the 


old country, the whole work being dune between four o'clock one 
afternoon, and ten o'clock the following morning. We also affect- 
ed turtles, and weie not unfrequently successful in hunting them 
nearer home than Florida, Mr. Stuart Macdouald capturing an ex- 
aggerated terrapin in the Assiniboine, which measured over three 
feet in length. 

The steamer Swallow, on her trip up the lied River, from Sel- 
kirk, on rounding Point Douglas, during a heavy squall, was 
struck by a blizzard on her beam, and careened over to such a degree 
that she was unable to right herself, and, tilling with water, sank 
in mid-stream. The twenty-rive passengers, and crew were rescued 
with considerable difficulty, the Rev. Father Lacombe narrowly 
escaping a watery grave. Fortunately beyond the loss sustained by 
Capt. Flannagan, and the emersion of the effects of those on board, 
no loss of life was sustained, the proximity of a York boat to the 
scene of the disaster alone, preventing what would certainly other- 
wise have terminated in a deplorable catastrophe. 

The annual meeting of the Winnipeg General Hospital, took 
place in May, when the election of the Board of Directors was pro- 
ceeded with, the result of which was — owing to an alleged conflict 
of authority, between the medical men and the ministers — that 
the clergymen were excluded from the directorate. This caused 
no little ill-feeling in some circles, and the press of the day, abound- 
ed in correspondence anent the subject. Chas. N. Dell, who had 
been in the employ of the Customs department for some time, as a 
temporary clerk, was placed on the permanent list. A meeting was 
held this month for the organization of a lodge of Orange Young 
Britons, when the name of the " Star of the West " was adopted, 
and Mr. Wm. Cleverly, barber, elected Master. On Wednesday, 
the 1st of May, an Ordination Service was held at St, John's Cathe- 
dral, when the Rev. Mr. Washer, of Headingly ; Rev. Mr. Rochford, 
of Poplar Point, and Kev. Mr. Bruce, were admitted to the order 
of Priesthood. His Lordship, the Metropolitan, of Ruperts Land, 
officiating. " The Alpha " having been purchased from the Red 
River Transportation Co., by Mr. W. II. Lyon, and become a 
British bottom, made her first trip to the Portage in May, Capt. 
Sheets in command, and having successfully performed the naviga- 


tion of the Assiniboine with a heavy cargo, and a tow of two 
barges, established the fact of its feasibility, and the nucleus of what 
at the present time, has developed into a most profitable commer- 
cial speculation. His Grace the Archbishop of St. Boniface, pre- 
vious to the elections for the Commons, issued an exhaustive pas- 
toral letter, concerning matters political, and the general attitude 
to be assumed by all good Catholics. The rush of emigrants daily 
increasing, and the army of land hunters becoming more numerous, 
several of our citizens engaged actively in the real estate busi- 
ness. Messrs. H. G. (Jonklin, and Mark Fortune, formed a part- 
nership, and opened out oilices over Dodd & Co.'s boot and shoe 
store, where they continue to prosecute an extensive land agency. 
Scrip, military warrants, and minors' claims were greatly in demand, 
and considerable speculation in these bonds afforded for a time a 
profitable harvest. Capt. C. M. Allen, lately of the Free Press 
Staff, and Mr., Xursey, also individually embarked in the business, 
but as every lawyer in the city, to say nothing of most of our 
merchants, who were all, more or less, large land owners, also 
dickered to an appreciable • extent in land, the margin of profit 
where such competition existed was painfully reduced, and some of 
the legitimate agencies were closed. Messrs. Conklin and For- 
tune, however, applied themselves heroically, and are engaged in 
the business at the, } resent time. 

The Presbytery of Manitoba met in Knox Church, 22nd May, 
when a good deal of business of interest to the members of that 
church, was transacted. A man named Riley, whilst in a state of 
partial intoxication, was robbed on Main St., whilst walking with 
a companion, of a pocket book, containing over %\ 00 in bank bills. 
The thief escaped, and about the same time, early in June, the al- 
leged murderer of an Indian, named " Blue-nose," — stabbed two 
years before, was arrested in Winnipeg. 

Our worthy city fathers were greatly agitated over the drainage 
question this summer, and alive to the fact that the city had already 
been successfully sued for damages, the result of imperfect water 
outlets, the construction of a Hume to carry off the water from the 
marsh in rear of the town was demanded. The report of the Public 
Works Committee, advocating the expenditure of §8,000 for the con- 


struction of a Hume on Alexander street, was submitted to the 
Council 1*11 Monday, May 27th. 

It was estimated that about 35,000 bushels of wheat had been 
exported from Winnipeg for the season of 78, ending May. The 
alterations in Holy Trinity Church, rendered necessary by the 
purchase of an organ, were now commenced. In the month of 
June, 78, Conklin & Fortune sold a block of 720 acres, west of 
the township of Grassmere, in 13, R. 1 West, at$2.50auacre. The 
new steam ferry, built by Mr. R. Tait, was launched. The St. Jean 
Baptiste Society, of Manitoba, at their annual meeting, elected the 
following officers for the current year, viz : — President, Geo. Roy ; 
Vice-Presidents, L. J. A. Lcveqtie A. D. Lepine, Geo. Couture; 
Secretaries, C. P. Gaudet, J. B. Moraehe ; Treasurers, Felix 
Charrier, P. Garnot ; Librarians, X. Kittson, (). J. Alonchamp; 
Physician, Dr. Gauthier. 

Political caucuses were now in order, and the representation of 
the county of Selkirk commenced to attract the attention of the 
Liberal Conservative party in Winnipeg. The Dufterin Park 
Association having made arrangements with Mr. Logan, live and 
a half acres of land, were purchased from him tor §1,000 ami the 
athletes of the city rejoiced at last in the possession of a suitable 
park for their demonstrations. The new idle range at Point 
Douglas was also opened in June. On Thursday, the 13th of June, 
His Lordship the Metropolitan of Rupert's Land was presented with 
an address; the presentation took place at the residence of Mr. G. 
B. Spencer, and was upon the occasion of the departure of the 
Bishop to attend the Pan-Anglican Synod in England. He left 
the same day. JThe steamer J. L. Gnimlin put in her first appear- 
ance in June, having just been completed at Fargo, Dakotah, where 
she had been built by the Grandin Bros., and commenced to ply 
regularly between Moorehead and Winnipeg; her tonnage was 217 
tons; she was 125 feet in length, 34 feet beam, and drew light, 15 
inches. She brought with her to this port on tins occasion 500 
tons of freight. The new steam ferry for the St. Boniface and 
Winnipeg crossing also arrived, and was a wonderful improvement 
upon the ponderous old affair now discarded. Fully complete the 
" Adelaide" cost her owner, Mr. Robert Tait, about §0,000, and was 
a credit to all concerned. 


The Paris circus, which paid our city a visit, having come to 
grief financially, was bought out by two enterprising individuals. 
One of the biggest oxen on record was exhibited at the market in 
the summer of '78 ; it stood 6 feet high, and measured ten feet in 
length. Dominion Day, '78, was celebrated with the usual festivities 
Dufterin Park being thrown open to the public, and in the evening 
Dick Oglesby's Troubadours, who were doing Manitoba, helped to 
create a diversion. The members of the Winnipeg Field Battery 
were at this time undergoing their annual drill, and were encamped 
under canvas just outside the city. Another highway robbery- 
took place in duly, when a Mr. Walker, a young man from the 
country, was relieved of a sum of money, after having been un- 
pleasantly ga rotted by two ungentlemanlike foot pads, whoassaulted 
him on the sidewalk after dark. To refer to more humanizing 
topics, we find contemporary with this catastrophe, Mr. Thomas 
Nixon, being made the recipient of a testimonial at the hands of 
his Sunday School scholars. Mr. James H. Rowan, 0. E., after a 
long stay in the eastern provinces returned to resume his official 
duties, and being an old resident was warmly welcomed. Mr. 
Rowan's first appearance in Manitoba was in 1871, when he came 
as deputy under Sandford Fleming, in charge of the eastern and 
western district C. P. E., his district of supervision embracing the 
line of route between Fort Pelly on the west and Eat Portage in 
the east. The summer of '78 was a warm one, the mercury 
getting up to 95 c in the shade in July. Dr. Schultz had the 
misfortune to meet with a serious accident ; he fell on the side- 
walk and broke an arm, but owing to the fortunate presence of 
Dr. Macdonald, of the Penitentiary, at the time of the accident, the 
injured limb was promptly attended to, and further complications 
avoided. The Pigeon Club that was organized by some of our 
sporting citizens continued to " draw " well, and many a fine 
evening the prairie " out west" and beyond the city limits, was the 
rendezvous of some of our aspiring sportsmen, and when birds 
failed, glass balls were substituted. The formal opening of the 
new organ placed in Holy Trinity Church, at a cost of $3,000, 
took place on Friday evening the 19th July, and was a very suc- 
cessful affair, the church being crammed with all the elite of the 


city. Mrs. Peach presided at the organ, assisted by a full choir, 
and some outside talent borrowed for the occasion. The instrument 
was built and designed by Messrs. Wan-en & Son, of Montreal, and 
constructed according to speeifi cation, the case being uf chest- 
nut with black walnut facings, and the front pipes beautifully 
decorated with Jieur de lis and other ecclesiastical designs in blue, 
gold and brown, the top sunn minted with carved pinacles. Every 
one was charmed to listen to its dulect diapasons, but a doubt and 
difficulty seemed to exist in the minds of some — sordid people, 
perhaps — as to the quarter from which the money would be forth- 
coming, to defray the cost. Openings appeared to be in order, for 
Radiger & Erb, infused with a spirit of enterprise, threw open for 
public inspection their distillery just completed. This was situated 
on the river bank at Point Douglas. The Manitoba Distillery has 
a capacity for turning out 4,000 barrels of liquor per year, enough 
to supply the present Manitoba trade, and the spirit distilled is 
daily gaining ground in public favor. One of the most severe 
tornadoes ever experienced in these latitudes visited the city on 
July 14. Hail stones as large as bantams eggs fell in great quan- 
tities ; the thunder and lightning was unprecedentedly severe, the 
rain poured down in a repetition of small waterspouts, and the 
wind assumed the character of a cyclone. This Mas the blizzard 
of the season, and houses, chimneys, windows, crops, cattle, and 
humans, alike suffered. Tt was our Sunday out, and the difficulty 
that we encountered in collecting together the pieces of our horse 
and buekboard after the performance ceased, is not likely to be for- 
gotten. This may have had something to do with precipitating the 
departure of Messrs. C. D. Rickards and E. W. Jarvis, who left the 
following day, to take in the Paris Exposition. The Manitoba 
" wave " which afforded a universal topic for facetious comment 
amongst eastern exchanges, about this time when were well nigh 
dead with the awful fervour of a pronounced solstice, good natural- 
ly interfered, and St Paul, Chicago, and even Memphis, Tenn., 
to say nothing of the Canadas, had cause to bless Manitoba for the 
manufacture of an " ice cool" current, that for refreshing frigidity 
beat their native lemonades all hollow. 

In August we received a visit from Mr. John Lowe, Secretary 


of the Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, and Cool Burgess 
attempted, not however with the same success as upon his first 
visit, to tickle the risibilities of a few of our citizens. Ex-Gover- 
nor Morris accompanied by Miss Morris also arrived August 2, on 
a visit to the Province, and on Wednesday, the 8th, at a meeting 
at the City Hall under the auspices of the Liberal Conservative 
Association of Winnipeg, Mr. J). M. Walker in the chair, the 
choice having fallen upon Mr. Morris to contest the County of 
Selkirk in the Conservative interest, as opposition candidate to Mr. 
D. A. Smith, Mr. Morris upon the occasion named (Hon. Jno. 
Norquay and Mr Alex. Logan, having withdrawn in his favor) ac- 
cepted the nomination, and the first shot was fired of a campaign 
which for partisan exhibition, and extreme political recriminations, 
had certainly in Manitoba never been equaled. 

Mr. F. C. Mercer, being of an experimental disposition, now in- 
flicted the town with a flock of cashmere goats, which he valued at 
from SCO to S7o each. Whether his venture has proved to be a 
remunerative one, we have been unable to discover. On the 9th 
of Aug. Mr. James Henderson, P.D.G.M., was made the recipient 
at the hands of his Masonic brethren, of a handsome silver break- 
fast and tea service, bearing the following inscription : 

Presented to 

A. W. Brother, James Henderson, P. D. G. M., 

by the brethern of Lodges Xos. 34, 

5, & 7, A.F. and A.M.,, 1878. 

An address accompanied this. On the 8th the corner stone of 
the present magnificent Presbyterian Church was laid, in the pre- 
sence of a large number of citizens, and with all the ceremonials 
usually attendant upon such occasions. The total cost of the build- 
ing was estimated at about £21,200. The firm of McLenaohen 
& Malloch having dissolved, the business continued to be carried 
on in the old stand by Jas. McLenaghen. Some 220 'Icelanders, 
direct from their fatherland, passed through Winnipeg, en route to 
their new colony of Gimli, the latter part of August, and about 
the same time an addition to our fast growing fleet of Red River 
steamers put in an appearance, in the shape of the Wm. Robinson 


a tug of 85 feet long, by 25 feet beam, which together with two 
barges, and an 80 horse-power engine, represented an outlay of 
SI 3,000, and made the eleventh Canadian steamboat, navigating 
lied River ; rather a contrast to the flotilla of four, only three 
short years before. 

Political " dodgers " of all sorts, and emanating from the sup- 
porters of both candidates, in the contest for Selkirk, now appeared 
ad nan seam, the general tenor of which was that Mr. Smith was a 
"political traitor," and Mr. Morris, " an old woman." Strong com- 
mittees were formed by either side, and in Winnipeg the campaign 
was conducted with such a cheerful indifference to temperate ex- 
pression of opinion, that on most occasions the meetings called by 
either of the principals culminated in pronounced "whoop-ups." This, 
however, was all in keeping with the character with which we are 
credited, and which we are always anxious to sustain, viz : that of 
being a very live people. 

The roll of the new infantry company was now complete, and 
the officers were as follows :— G. F. Carruthers, Captain ; C. U. 
Lindsay, Lieutenant ; Geo. Berridge, Ensign. On August 27 the 
Manitoba Rifle Association opened its annual ride match ; a large 
concourse of people was on the ground, and the proceedings passed 
off very pleasantly. 

On the 2nd of September at a meeting of the City Council, the 
•disagreeable announcement was made through Aldermen Conklin 
and Strang, that an estimated deficit of 843,951.71 would have to 
be provided for at the close of the fiscal year, to make the expendi- 
tures and receipts of the current year to balance. The estimated 

Expenditure was $62,986.84 

The estimated receipts 19,035.13 

Amount to be raised $43,951.71 

September the 5th the civic Holiday was held, and the usual 
•formula observed at such times in the shape of slaughtering time, 
was faithfully carried out. Mr. J. W. Sifton, the present Speaker 
of the Local House, had the temerity about this time to come out 
in opposition to Dr. Schultz in Lisgar, who was seeking the suffrage 
of the electors in his old constituency. As will be shown later on 
•Mr. Sifton was not elected. 


A campaign sheet yclept the Manitoba TelegrapJi, dedicated to 
the Conservative interests in general, and Mr. Morris' interests in 
particular, now made its appearance. It was published by Mr. 
Nursey, and printed at the Metis printing-house, St. Boniface. As 
the only paper in Winnipeg at that time which supported the 
Macdonald Administration, and advocated the return of men who 
were disciples of that policy, it can be easily understood that its 
limited " staff " was kept busy. In order to satisfy its promoters, 
it was necessarily of somewhat a vituperative character, and finan- 
cially it did not prove a bonanza to the publisher, as after a brief 
but accented career it lapsed, and Nursey was unequal to the 
effort of building a " marble front" out of the proceeds. « 'Twas 
ever thus." 

On Wednesday, 4th September, 78, telegraphic communication 
was established between Winnipeg and Thunder Bay, and tele- 
grams of a congratulatory nature passed over the line between 
Thomas Marks, Reeve of Shuniah, and Thos. Scott, Mayor of Win- 
nipeg. The average daily attendance of scholars at the Protestant 
schools in this city September, '78, was as follows : 

Girls 226 

Bovs 204 

Total 430 

Col. Dennis, Surveyor-General, paid Winnipeg a flying visit 
in September. On the news of the result of the general election, 
in Ottawa, Quebec, and elsewhere, reaching Winnipeg, the Conser- 
vative portion of our population became immensely excited and 
jubilant, whilst the feelings of our Reform citizens suffered in a 
corresponding ratio. On the 19th Sept., at the nomination for 
Lisgar, Mr. J. W. Sifton, feeling his inability to cope successfully 
with Dr. Schultz, wisely withdrew, and the Doctor was returned 
by acclamation. In Provencher Mr. Dubuc had no opponent, and 
in Marquette Mr. Joseph Evan, having retired in favor of Sir John 
A. Macdonald, Mr. Luxton, who was contesting the seat against 
Ryan, withdrew, and John A. was elected for that constituency by 
acclamation, leaving the representation of Selkirk (one only of 
our four Dominion constituencies) to be fousht out at the polls 
In the midst, however, of all the heat of a political contest sight 



of commercial interests was not lost. 'Several new comers opened 
out in business. Thos. McCrosson established himself in a wing of 
McMicken's new block, and Parsons and Richardson engaged in the 
stationery business, in a store near the Post Office. On Thursday, 
the 2Gth of September, '78, the Smith-Moms election took place, 
and as it was a matter of impossibility for both candidates to be 
elected, the choice fell upon Mr. Donald A. Smith, who headed 
the list at the close of the polls, with a majority of ten votes. 

The following gives the number of votes polled for both candida- 
dates in the several parishes : — 


No. 1— Headingly 19 41 

No. 2— St. Charles 101 41 

No. 3— St. James 43 20 

No. 4— St. Boniface 63 GO 

No. 5 — Lorette 62 25 

No. 6 — Winnipeg, South Ward 59 53 

No. 7— West " 68 119 

No. 8— East " 45 60 

No. 9— North " 3S 71 

No. 10 — Kildonan 57 59 

555 545 

Morris, having majority in Winnipeg, Headingly and Kildonan ; 
Smith in St. Boniface, St. Charles, St. James and Lorette. Owing 
to alleged informalities in the return of the ballot boxes or envelopes, 
on the part of certain Deputy Returning Officers, a protest was 
entered by Mr. Morris, and a re-count insisted upon by the Court 
of Queen's Bench. Application was accordingly made to Judge 
McKeagney, and the 3rd of October was fixed for the re-count to be 
taken before that gentleman. Subsequently, however, application on 
behalf of Mr. Smith, had been made to Judge Betournay, for a re- 
count also, upon the ground that in St. Boniface parish two more 
ballots should have been counted for that gentleman than were 
counted; through some manceuvering, by a process known only to 
the initiated, Mr. Smith's re-count was set down for hearing on 
on the 2nd, and resulted in Mr. Smith's majority being reduced 


one vote. The day following, (the day fixed for Mr. Morris' re- 
count before Judge McKeagney) the Court met, when in answer 
to Mr. Morris, the Returning-Ofiicer, Mr. Sheriff Inkster, stated 
• that a re-count having been taken the day previous, by Judge Be- 
tournay, lie had in accordance with the law forwarded the ballots 
to the specified officer, at Ottawa. An indignant protest on Mr. 
Morris' part, then followed, and election issues became, much to 
the satisfaction of every one temporarily buried. 

Oysters at this time sold for SI a. can, an improvement on former 
years. Mr. Geo. Brown, whilst out shooting in the vicinity of the 
town, met with an accident, a cartridge he was placing in his gun, 
exploded, injuring his thumb ; he was assisted home. Radiger & 
Biggs' brick block was being rapidly pushed ahead, and (without 
any intentional irrelevancy) we may add that apples of the Totof- 
sky variety, as large as oranges, and Hyslop crabs, grown by Mr. 
Hall of Headingly, Man., were on exhibition in this city. Some 
very fine residences were about this time in the course 
of completion, in the suburbs of the town, notably the 
residence of Mr. F. E. Cornish, immediately in front 
of the Central School, and those of Mr. vVhitcher and Mr. Hunter, 
near Fort Garry, and close to the Assiniboine. We omitted to 
mention that previous to the defeat of the Mackenzie administra- 
tion in fulfilment of a promise of long standing, the Hon. Thomas 
Howard was appointed to the position of Deputy Receiver-General 
of Manitoba in room of Mr. MeMicken, superannuated, which 
appointment received the hearty approval of that gentleman's many 
friends. Mr. Molyneux St. John at the same time was appointed 
Indian Commissioner, in place of Col. Provencher, resigned. Satur- 
day, Oct. 12th, Mr. Morris left for his home in the east. About 
1,100 was the daily average of letters dropped into the city Post 
Office. Mr. Gelinas, Private Secretary to Governor Cauchon 
having resigned his position, returned to Quebec. 

Mr. R. W. Prittie still continued to inundate us with a profitable 
flood of well to do immigrants. In October, 78, he brought 
through his sixth party, making in all 840 families. Mr. Prittie 
deserves the practical recognition of our citizens for the untiring 
energy and zeal displayed by him in his laudable enterprise. A 


meeting for the purpose of organizing a snow-shoe club was held 
Oct. 11th at the Pacific Hotel, when the following gentlemen were 
elected the first officers of the " Winnipeg Snow-Shoe Club :" Hon. 
Pres., A. G. 15. Bannatyne; Pies., J. H. Rowan; Vice-Pres., C. 
W. Eadiger, and C. Sweeney ; Sec.-Treas., A. M. Ramsay ; Com- 
mittee, Messrs. W. D. Taylor, A. A. Ouellette, and J. McGinn. 
The Provincial Show was opened Oct. 9th in the City Hall, and 
proved a complete success, the entries numbering 1,147 against 
1,108 of the year previous, the first days receipts being $305.40 as 
against $248.50 the receipts of 1877. An agitation was made 
about this time for the establishment of a market in the South 
Ward for the convenience of the people in that locality, but when 
the matter assumed a definite shape, and placed before the City 
Council Oct. 14 by Aid. Hespeler, that gentleman's motion was 
negatived by the following vote : 

Yeas — The Mayor, and Aldermen Hespeler, Conklin, Mont- 
gomery and McDougall. 

Nays — Aldermen Fonseca, More, Logan, Strang, Jackson, and 

The Hon. R. A. Davis, Premier and Provincial Treasurer, having 
determined to retire from public life, the Hon. John Xorquay, 
Minister of Public Works, was called upon by Lieut. -Governor 
Cauchon to form a Cabinet, and this he did, selecting the following 
gentlemen as his colleagues : Hon. Jos. Royal, Minister of Public 
Works; Mr. D. M. Walker, Attorney-General ; and Mr. C. P. Brown, 
Provincial Secretary. The selection appeared to meet with 
general approval, and whilst waiting for the issue to be decided at 
the polls, the electors tried hard to possess their souls in patience. 
On October 28, Gribbon, who had been tried for taking the life of 
John Bell — the "sheds" shooting case to which, we have already 
made allusion — received sentence, when he was consigned to im- 
prisonment in. the Provincial Penitentiary for ten year?. 

On the 6th November, '78, a protest was entered against the 
return of the Hon. I). A. Smith as member for Selkirk, and the 
necessary deposit of $1,000 made with the Prothonotary, the 
petiti mors being Messrs. Archibald Wright- and David Young, on 
charge of personal bribery and corrupt practices. 


Mr. S. L. Bedson, Warden of the Provincial Penitentiary, having 
recovered from a very serious illness, once again made his appear- 
ance in the streets of Winnipeg, greatly to the gratification of many 
warm friends. 

A mass meeting of citizens, held at the City Hall, Friday, 15th 
November, 78, after an exciting debate, which was conducted by 
some of our prominent citizens, carr'ed, amongst others, the follow- 
ing resolution, which was moved by J. FL Ashdown, and seconded 
by S. C. Biggs, " that it is desirable that the City Council should 
immediately prepare a by-law, and submit the same to the people, 
for the purpose of aiding in the construction of the bridge across 
the Feed River, and of the Western Railway, by a bonus of 

The Lady Ellen arrived in port Nov. 18, from Selkirk, and 
though the ice was thickening, she made the trip in safety. This 
was about the latest trip on record. 

And now candidates for Parliamentary honors were crowding in 
fast, and what with reading the addresses of those asking a renewal 
of confidence, and of those new to the business — the free and in- 
dependent had their hands full. About this time too, another 
newspaper put in an appearance, but in this instance the public 
mind was thrown into a somewhat unusual state of agitation, owing 
to the fact, that Quiz, conceded the name of its Editor, and as it 
was emphatically of a free lance order, and indulged to an unlimited 
extent in personalities, its brochures were looked forward to with no 
little degree of trepidation on the part of the townsfolks, who one 
and all, in turn, were subjected to good natured, but perhaps rather 
too close analysis. Some of our citizens occasionally, however, 
grew wrathy over its attacks, and hungered for the life of the an- 
onymous man at the helm. The greater the outcry the more popu- 
lar it became, until the wretched little rag, boasted of a weekly 
edition of one thousand copies. 

Another sheet, edited by Mr. Abjon, was also in circulation 
contemporary witli Quiz, and languished under the name of the Ga- 
zette. It was not recognized by respectable people, on account of the 
coarseness of its utterances, which were directed Solely against in- 
dividuals, notably those who came under its foul lash, being the 


Hon. Jos. Royal, Minister of Public Works ; Hon. John Norquay, 
and other members of the Administration. A suit was entered 
against the Gazette for libel, by Mr. Royal, and damages laid at 
85,0(JO. Ex-Attorney General Clarke, though not openly, its edi- 
tor, not unrighteously bore the odium attached to its management. 
It was a mephitic literary attempt, and staggered under its burden 
of slanders for a few weeks only. Mr. Rice M. Howard was ap- 
pointed Clerk of the ex-Council of Manitoba in November, and at 
the same time Mr. Alex. Begg was gazetted Deputy Provincial 

The following excerpt from Mr. Thomas Longbottom's diaiy, (a 
resident of Winnipeg) will convey some idea of the fall weather of 

" On the 30th Oct crossed Red River, on the ice ; Nov. 3rd 
" crossed ice with a team of horses, loaded. On Nov. 11th ice gave 
"way — down I went — got almost drowned. On the 19th, plough- 
" ed and harrowed two acres and sowed it with garden seed. 

On the 23rd November snow fell. 

Considerable agitation was now manifested by our citizens in 
regard to local railway matters, and correspondence on the matter 
appeared in the daily press. On the 28th November the Ladies 
College at St. Johns' had a narrow escape from destruction by tire. 
The same day Mr. F. E. Cornish, who had been confined to his bed 
with a painful and lingering complaint for many weeks, breathed 
his last, and Winnipeg in his demise lost one of her ablest lawyers 
and politicians. Mr. Cornish left behind him a number of sincere 
mourners. On Tuesday, 3rd December, '78, the last spike on the 
Pembina Branch C. P. R. was driven, the united efforts of Mrs. W. 
Lyon and Mrs. Geo. Brown, being utilized upon the occasion. A 
large party boarded the train at St. Boniface on invitation from 
the contractors, and proceeded to Penza, the station immediately 
south of the Rosseau River, the point of junction of the work of 
the two track laying parties, who had been working towards each 
other, from either end respectively. Here the spike, that estab- 
lished railway communication between Winnipeg and the outside 
world, was at last driven, and with this culminating act, so largely 
typical of our western progress, a new era was entered upon. 


The following congratulatory telegraphic correspondence passed 
between St. Paul and Winnipeg on this occasion : 

St. Paul, Dec. 2, 1878. 

"The Hon. the Mayor, and the City Council of Winnipeg : 

"The Chamber of Commerce of this city instruct me to tender to 
" you and the citizens of Winnipeg their respectful congratulations 
" that the two cities are at length connected by iron hands, and to 
" express their fervent desire, that intimate social and business 
<{ relations will be the result." 


Henry II. Sibley, 

Winnipeg, December 5th, 187G. 

*' Henry H. Sibley, President of Chamber of Commerce, St. Paul, 
" Absence from town prevented sooner response to your con- 
" gratulatory telegram. The Council and citizens of Winnipeg 
"heartily reciprocate the friendly sentiments therein expressed, and 
"hope to have the opportunity soon of exchanging personally good 
•" wishes and good offices with your people." 

Yours, etc., 

Thomas Scott, 


The nomination of candidates for the Local Legislature was held 
throughout the Province on December 11th, and we were again 
inflicted with the usual specimens of political rhodomontade from 
the hustings. Capt. Scott and Mr. W. A. Loucks were in the field 
for Winnipeg, the former in opposition to the administration of the 
Hon. John Norquay, the latter as a Government supporter. Trains 
from the south over the Pembina Branch now ran regularly, arriving 
at about 12 o'clock midnight, and departing at 2.45 a. m. J. J. 
Johnson & Co. opened their new skating rink foot of Post Office 
Street, 17 Dec, and the Citizens Kink, under the proprietorship of 
Charley Baskerville, threw open its doors about the same time. 

' The result of the Local Elections, held on the 18th Dec, '78 was 
.as follows, the Korquay Government being handsomely sustained : 




Scott, Biggs, 

Stevenson, Cowan, 






Hon. J. Norquay, 
" J. Royal, 

" C. P. Brown, 
" D. M. Walker, 
Messrs. J. W. Sifton, 
" Gunn, 
" Lariviere, 

" Goulet, 
" Delorme, 
" Murray, 
" McKenzie, 
Christmas Day, '78, was, as regards weather, typical of the Nor'- 
West, in place of the mud of '77, we rejoiced in a snow storm, and 
the mercury away below zero. 

On the :30th Dec. the nomination for Aldermen took place, 
when Aid. Logan was elected Mayor by acclamation ; the follow- 
ing gentlemen being nominated for aldermen : — 


W. T. J. James, 


Arch. Wright, 
J. B. Moore, 
W. T. Fonseca, 

D. \V. Stobart, 
A. F. Eden, 


S. Blanchard, 
W. F. Alloway, 

E. G. Conklin, 
G. Montgomery, 

A. McMicken, 

Hobt. Strang, 
E. W. Jarvis. 

A. Mc Arthur, 
Alex. Brown, 


W. H. Lyon, 

D. Young, 

G. F. Carruthers, 

M. Fortune, 
J. H. Ashdo\vn v 



New Yeae, 1879— Feost— Shell Oysters— "Manitoba Times"— A Feee Mar- 
ket — Johnson & Kocan — Aldekmen — Mrs. Matheson — A Cowardly 
Assault — Ashdonvn's Hospitality — Winnipeg's Licenses — Snow Shoeks, 

— Shooting of Mb. Marston Masonic Ball — Historical Society — 

Northern Lights — Opening of Parliament — Quiz Cartoons — Exemp- 
tion from Depression — Mr. Aikens— Mr. Killam — Guilt Record — 
Post Office — Mr. Whitla— One Price House— Board of Trade — A 
Freight Block — Sanitary — Mr. Bathgate on Protection — Mr. J. F. 
Cladwell — Minister Abroad — A Royal Commission — E. Robert! — 
Richard's Agility — Mr. Chas. R. Tuttle— City Expenditure— Cash 
System— A Huge Hegira — Rohson & Co. — Legislation — Land Policy 
— The City Council's §300,000 Pledge. 

New Year's Day, Anno Domini 1870, this present year of grace, 
dawned sharp, clear and cool, the thermometer marked 28 c below 
zero, and there was a certain crispness, and coolness, and rigid 
stability too about our business men, which was very comforting to 
behold from a commercial standpoint. Shell oysters loomed up 
this month also, the first ever brought into Winnipeg, which was 
universally accepted as proof positive of progressiveness. Our 
Masonic citizens about this time engaged in a little controversy 
which assisted in keeping that respectable organization prominently 
before the public, and Holy Trinity Church little people Xmas- 
treed it to their hearts content. A final effort was made at the 
close of the old year by Walter R. Xursey to float the Manitoba 
Times Printing and Publishing Company which so long back 
as July, '78, had advertised in the official Gazette over the names 
of Messrs. Gilbert McMicken, David M. Walker, John M. Mac-. 
donnell, Chas. W. Radiger, and Walter It. Xursey, notice of appli- 
cation to be made to the Lieut.-Governor in Council, for a charter 
of Incorporation. The capital stock was placed at $2lJ,U00, shares 
one hundred dollars each. Owing to the fact, however, that most 
of the gentlemen named and other prominent citizens, who were 
shareholders in the concern, grew less enthusiastic in the matter, 
and gradually backed down, when time for payment of the plant 
came round, Mr. Nursey found himself (after some months of wasted 


time and ammunition), in exactly, with the exceptions noted, the 
same position as he was when he started. Doubtless, this was all 
for the best, as a Conservative paper, subject to the direct control 
of a board of management, eould never exist in Winnipeg, where 
individual jealousies in matters political have so far been per- 
mitted to over-ride broader considerations. 

The City Council now passed a measure which was viewed by 
the people at large with unmixed satisfaction. A free market was 
opened to the producer and tolls henceforth were abolished. 

The lessees of the market stalls were doing a roaring business, 
notably we may mention the firm of Johnson & Koran. Mr. 
liocan came to Winnipeg from Montrel in 1872, when he opened 
■out a small butchers shop in the shanty adjoining the old Bed 
Saloon — now the Gable Hotel. In the fall of the same year, his 
business extending, he removed to the corner off Main Street, in 
rear of where Mr. Whitehead's large chemist's store stands to-day 
and again in the spring following to Rocan's block, now occupied 
by Guillmette and others. On the opening of the city market in 
'77, he formed a partnership with Mr. Johnson, when, as Messrs. 
Johnson & Hocan they opened out in the two stalls in which they 
now carry on their large — and let us not omit to add — profitable 

January 7th the civic elections for 1870 took place, and with the 
following result, the first three named gentlemen in each ward, 
being elected : 


Blanchard 94 

Conklin 89 

Alloway 83 

McMicken 63 

Montgomery 49 


McArthur 98 

Brown 95 

Strang 92 

Jarvis 62 

James 62 



Young 175 

Fortune 153 

Ashdown 142 

Lyon 86 

Carrathers 36 


More 113 

Eden 100 

Wright 91 

Fonseca ; — 89 

Stobart 7-4 

As has been previously stated Alex. Logan was elected Mayor. 
A mass meeting of course took place the previous evening, when 
the candidates for aldermanic honors were invited to " give explana- 
tions of the course to be pursued by them, on the railway question 
then before the people." Thomas Luxton, M.P.P., was chairman, 
Mr. A. M. Brown, .secretary. The usual amount of useless non- 
practical chat was indulged in. On the evening of the 7th January, 
the Royal Arms Hotel was formally opened, the event being cele- 
brated by a grand supper. 

Previous to becoming the wife of the Rev. S. P. Matheson, Miss 
Fortin was presented by the members of the Holy Trinity Church 
choir with a handsome piece of plate, and some silver suitably 
inscribed. Q")~ now appeared in an enlarged form, and sported a 
frontispiece. Benson & Taylor having bought out Washington's 
book and stationery store, opened out a large stock of goods in the 
old stand, and entered upon an extensive business. On the 15th 
January Mr. Pierre Delornie accepted the portfolio of Minister of 
Agriculture in the Local Government. The same dav Mr. W. F. 
Luxton was the victim of a cowardly attack by a scoundrel named 
Sinclair, who out of revenge for a fancied insult directed at his 
mother, who at the time was living witli ex-Attorney General 
Clarke as his wife, assaulted him with a cudgel on Main Street. 
Mr. Luxton being under medical treatment at the time was unable 
to make any resistance, and Sinclair and his companion made their 
escape. As H. J. Clarke was at the time in the held for the repre- 


sentation of Rockwood in the Local Parliament, and as W. F. 
Luxton had taken pains to place him in his true light before the 
people through the colums of the Free Press, and had presented to 
the readers of that paper an unpleasantly truthful sketch of that 
gentleman's record, Clarke was generally credited with being the 
instigator of the assault on Luxton. The case was tried before Mr. 
Justice McKeagney on the 16th, when Sinclair was committed to 
stand his trial at the forthcoming assizes. Bail was given, the 
prisoner's own recognizance of $800, and two sureties of 8400 each 
being taken. Subsequently, and previous to the trial Sinclair fled 
the country, and though a warrant is out for his apprehension, he 
has managed to evade arrest. 

On tin; 17th January Mr. Ashdown entertained his employees to 
a dinner at his residence, when the annual distribution of 81,000 
amongst those in his service took place. Many car-loads of freight 
now continued to arrive, and large shipments of wheat were also 
being consigned east. 

The following Licenses were issued by the City of Winnipeg 
during the year ending December, 1878 : 

23 hotels® S200 $4,600 00 

2 hotels® 81 00 200 00 

groceries @ 8200 1,800 00 

52 double trucks (a 88 410 00 

13 single trucks (g 85 65 00 

1 Mississippi table 50 00 

5 boarding houses Qv 85 25 00 

5 livery stables (a 850 250 00 

2 feed stables (« 825 50 00 

1 wholesale grocer 200 00 

2 double hacks @ 810 20 00 

1 shooting gallery 10 00 

1 auctioneer 100 00 

4 auctioneers 166 GO 

21 billiard tables 330 00 

2 scavengers @ 810 20 00 

6 1 horse hawkers® 810 60 00 


io foot hawkers @ $5 25 00 
2 transient traders @ 840 80 01 ) 

Total $8,505 10 

This will in a measure indicate the extent of some branches of 
trade. The total number of prisoners arrested by the city police in 
1878 was 517. The amount received into court in the shape of 
fines, costs, etc., was $1,705.70. 

The snow-shoers were now enjoying themselves to the full, and 
weekly tramps outside of the city limits were in order. Mr. Empey, 
of Main street, the celebrated haberdasher, imported a number of 
good shoes from Montreal, and McLenaghen having supplied the 
necessary capots, outings were of frequent occurrence. On the 
22nd of this month Mr. E. Marston, clerk of the County Court, had 
a narrow escape from losing his life at the hands of James Mcllroy, 
a bailiff in the employ of the court. Mcllroy, who had some 
imaginary grievance, presented himself at Marston 's door, and with- 
out warning deliberately fired two shots at that gentleman, one of 
which took eilect in his arm, causing a severe wound. Subsequently 
after arrest and trial, the prisoner was acquitted after a temporary 
imprisonment, on the ground of being of unsound mind. On the 
23rd the Selkirk protested election case came up for trial before 
Judge Betournay. The Grand Lodge of Manitoba A. F. and A. M. 
was held in the Masonic Hall, Winnipeg, on the 22nd, a large 
attendance of oiHcers present. On the 23rd the following gentle- 
man met at the Court House, Winnipeg, to organize an Historical 
and Scientific Society : — Rev. Messrs. Robertson, Finkham, Grisdale, 
Hart, Frof. Bryce, Br. Cowan, Messrs. Whitcher, W. H. Tioss, D. 
Codd, A. Macdonald, A. McArthur, Parsons, T. L. Hunt, Geo. H. 
Hane, Alex. Begg, Walter K. Nursey. Dr. Cowan was chosen 
chairman, Mr. Begg, secretary. 

Mr. McArthur read a paper, in which the advisability of forming 
a society was propounded. Those present formed themselves into 
a society, and the name of " Historical and Scientific Society" was 
chosen. A committee was appointed to draft by-laws, etc., and the 
meeting separated to report again. Competition amongst the bakers 
reduced the price of bread, which reached "21 loaves for $1," bed 


rock figures. A now lodge under the name of the Northern Li<dit 
Lodge No. 1U, under the registry of the (irand Lodge of Manitoba, 

Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons, was constituted January 29, 
1879. The officers appointed were as follows : — W. Bro. G. Mc- 
Micken, W.M. ; Bro. A. Christie, S.W. ; Bro. J. M. Macdonnell, 
J.W. ; Bro. Dr. J. S. Lynch, Chaplain; Bro. John Balsillie, Trea- 
surer; Bro. C. N. Bell, Secretary; Bro. D. McArthur, Tyler; Bro. 
Hon. Thomas Howard, Senior Deacon : Bro. James McLenaghen, 
Junior Deacon; Bro. H. MeKenzie, Director of Ceremonies; Bro. 
T. A Newman, Junior Guard ; Bros. G. B. Spencer, and S. L. 
Bedson, Stewards. At this time there were two organizations each 
claiming to he the Grand Lodge of Manitoba A. F. and A. M. 

About this time Mr. Thomas Nixon received notice that his 
services as purveyor of the Canada Pacific Railway were dispensed 
with. Tn February Quiz came out with its first cartoon. A very 
creditable effort, "Norquay's Provincial Troupe," in which that 
gentleman and his colleagues were fairly caricatured in an amusing 
manner. The First Session of the Third Parliament of Manitoba 
was opened February 1st, 1879, by His Honor Lt.-Gov. Oauchon 
with the customary ceremonials, the floors and galleries of the 
House being crowded. At a meeting of the Board of Trade, Feb. 
4th, a memorial to the Dominion Government was drafted praying, 
for relief from the difficulties Manitoba labored under owing to 
defective railway arrangements. 

On February 8th the Local House adjourned its session on a 
vote of 14 to 9, until the 8th of April, a step advocated by the 
Government in order to allow of certain members of the Cabinet to 
visit Ottawa during the session of the Dominion Parliament, and 
place before the authorities, Manitoba's argument in favor of an 
increase of her subsidy. On February 14th the thermometer 
dropped to 34 = below zero, but though the citizens of Winnipeg 
were experiencing at the time an emphatically cold snap, and 
though business, owing to a large extent to the depression in com- 
mercial circles in the older Provinces, lacked perhaps that charac- 
teristic amount of push, usually an ever present factor, in all 
Winnipeg's doings ; yet in the face of a universal depression in 
trade, we suffered less than the generality of communities. It was 


generally conceded that owing to the high price of lumber in 1878, 
caused by the failure of lumbermen in getting their logs down in 
the winter, that the amount of money expended iu 1878 in building 
operations in Winnipeg would fall far shortof the amount outlaved, 
in the previous year; this appears, however, not to have been the 
case, for while the expenditure of '78 did not probably equal that 
of '77, still the total aim unit did not fall very fur short, for we find 
that about 100 structures of various descriptions were ereeted, and 
at a cost of about §200,000 — a pretty good exhibit, it must l>e 
admitted, considering the circumstances. 

Mr. J. M. Aikens — a son of the Secretary of State — about this 
time commenced the practice of the law as did also Mr. Killam, a 
recent arrival. About GOO valentines passed through the Winnipeg 
P. O., 1870, which demonstrates that we were guilty of legitimate 
follies as well as older places. 

The number of prisoners apprehended by Chief Power and the 
Provincial Police for 1878 was 172 ; of these llo were convicted, 
and suffered the consequences of their crime ; 72 of these convic- 
tions were for misdemeanours which were committed within the 
city of Winnipeg. Xot a great number, when the hundreds of 
strangers of all nationalities constantly pouring into our midst is 
taken into consideration. In the year 1878, 25,411 registered letters 
were handled by our Post Office. 

During February, Mr. P. J. Whitla, from Arnprior, Out., arrived 
in town, and being naturally impressed with the rushing develop- 
ment of Winnipeg and the unmistakeable signs of its future 
prosperity, promptly concluded to east his lines in a pleasant place, 
and purchased the premises occupied by Mr. W. H. Lyon, on Main 
Street for 811,000. Mr. Whitla at once made extensive alterations 
in the premises, and in a very short time opened out a wholesale 
and retail dry goods establishment second to none in the city, and 
and essentially, as he is wont emphatically to state it, a one 'price- 
business. This appears to have been a golden and profitable rule 
with Mr. Whitla, for previous to coming to Winnipeg, he had been 
engaged in the trade on the Upper Ottawa, and on this business 
basis, had multiplied a trade of S20,000 in a few short years, to 
$80,000, and this with a town support of 2,000 inhabitants. He 


is pardonably sanguine of success in his new career, and intends to 
religiously adhere to his one price text. About this time Nicholas 
Flood Davin, of Toronto, paid Winnipeg a visit. A largely attended 
meeting of the Board of Trade was held on the 10th February, 
when the following officers were elected : — President, A. Bannatyne ; 
Vice-President, W. H. Lyon ; Council, Messrs. Eden, Howard, 
Young, Ashdown, Mulholland, McDonald, Alio way, Strang, Brown, 
McMillan, Sweeney, Malloch. The annual meeting of the Bible 
Society took place the same day. The transport facilities of the 
Pembina Branch were not equal to the occasion, as we have already 
noticed, and it was no unusual thing to have an accumulation of 
freight on the frontier. In February, '79 40 cars laden with 
merchandize for Winnipeggers lay at St. Vincent idly awaiting to 
be " moved on." At this season big mails occasionally elevated or 
depressed us, thirty or more sacks was not an unusual infliction. 
In February Cameron & Campbell, tailors, dissolved partnership ; 
this firm was established in '73 ; they now opened out on their 
individual accounts. The sanitary aspect of the town attracted the 
attention of Dr. Agnew, a new importation, and Mr. W. Bathgate 
opened up an able correspondence with the press in defence of 
Protection and the National Policy. Mr. J. F. Caldwell, with a 
degree of enterprise unusual, now came to the front, and bought 
the corner lot on Main Street, immediately in front of the Post 
Office, and next to Mr. Whitla's, from W. H. Lyon for $8,000, 
and immediately commenced active preparation for erecting a three 
storey brick block, wherein to conduct his apothecaries trade. 

On the 24th February Hon. Messrs. Xorquay and Royal accom- 
panied by Mr. Begg left for Ottawa. They went for the purpose 
of securing better terms for Manitoba. At a meeting of the His- 
torical Society, the following officers were chosen ; — President, Chief 
■Justice Wood ; 1st Vice-President, Dr. Cowan ; 2nd Vice-President, 
Aid. MeArthur ; Corresponding Secretary, Prof. Bryce ; Eecord- 
ing Secretary, Alex. Begg ; Treasurer, S. It. Parsons ; Ex-Council, 
Rev. Canon Grisdale, Dr. Codd, A. H. Whitcher, J. H. Rowan, E. 
W. Jarvis, J. F. Bain, Jas. Stewart, Hon. John Norquay and Hon. 
Joseph Royal. Mr. W. H. Lyon, who sold his property on Main 
Street for $10,000, now commenced the construction of a large 


wholesale warehouse on McDermott Street, immediately in rear of 
his former premises. A Royal Commission consisting of Alex. 
McArthur and W. R. Bown was now appointed by the Dominion 
Government to make an investigation of Mr. Nixon's official affairs. 
The morning of Feb. 26th the thermometer marked 43 ° below 
zero, the lowest point reached since January, 77, when 44 ° below 
was experienced ; no one, however, appeared to be aware of it. 

In February Mr. Xursey was gazetted Provincial Auditor of 
Manitoba under the Local Government. The combined tonnage 
of Manitoba vessels visiting this port was 1,101 tons. Mr. E. 
Roberts, well known for his geniality and kindness, by numerous 
Manitoba pilgrims, now resigned the proprietorship of the Grand 
Central Hotel, and the Sinclair brothers took possession. 

The Winnipeg Snow-shoe Club races came off on 3rd March, 
when our wtdl-known townsman, Mr. C. D. Pickards, accredited 
with being a refreshingly green man on snow-shoes, captured— 
somewhat to the annoyance and disgust of other competitors— the 
two mile race and the trophy in 15 minutes 33f seconds. Rev. 
0. Fortin, now commenced his regular series of admonishings to 
young men from Holy Trinity pulpit. 

Cronn— R. H. Cronn— the much respected, now entered into 
possession of the " Rossin House Hotel." 

On Saturday, March 8th, Mr. Chas. R. Tuttle arrived in Winnipeg, 
and as it was understood to be the intention of this gentleman to 
start a Conservative daily newspaper in Winnipeg, sympathizers 
with the political views of his party were correspondingly gratified. 
A branch of the Dominion Temperance Alliance was formed in 
Winnipeg in March. 

The South- Western Colonization Railway Co. of Manitoba, and a 
bridge over the Red River now began to occupy public 'notice. 
March 14th Captain Kennedy, of the Rapids, Red River, an old 
Arctic explorer, lectured before the Historical Society upon the 
''North-West Passage." On the 17th St. Patrick's Society cele- 
brated the day with unusual honors, and spring vegetables were 
displayed in the market. 

The total expenditure of the city of Winnipeg for the year 1878 
was $.">5,569.07, the total receipts were $66,478.68. On the 1st of 



April, the cash system was adopted by a number of our business 
men, notably butchers and bakers, and gave rise to considerable dis- 
cussion through the papers; much diversity of opinion as to its advisa- 
bility, and a strong feeling of opposition on the part of some of our 
struggling community existed. It was contended by its promoters, 
that the cutting down of prices would follow — a most desirable and 
necessary result. Xo such reduction, however, as was promised 
followed, and the advantage gained by the consumer under existing 
circumstances is ail. 

The first large batch of immigrants of the season '79, now arrived ; 
they numbered about 500 souls, and were ciceroned by Mr. R. W. 
Prittie ; and Conklin and Fortune, ready for the emergency, offered 
65,000 acres farming land for sale on easy terms. The eastern 
hegira now set in in earnest. 

Messrs. Robson & Co. early in April, having purchased the 
grocery department from Higgins & Young, proceeded to move into 
their new premises, and opened out a wholesale and retail trade on 
a much larger scale than formerly. 

Numerous parties of emigrants arrived following close upon each 
others heels, and an advent of strangers — heretofore unprecedented 
in the annals of the country — astonished us, with its overwhelm- 
ing rush. Consignments of hardy agriculturists from two to five 
hundred strong were landed at St. Boniface day after day, many of 
these parties bringing to this land of promise, a combined capital 
of from three to four hundred thousand dollars. 

On the 8th April, according to its promise, the Local Legislature 
again met, the Ottawa delegation having returned. On motion of 
the Premier, after some discussion, the House was further adjourned, 
until May 27th in order to permit of further negotiations with Ot- 
tawa anent the late conference with the authorities there, upon 
the subject of better terms. After some discussion and consider- 
able adverse criticism on the part of Mr. Scott, in regard to the 
trip taken by the ministers, and the good likely to accrue from a 
further adjournment, the House rose, to meet again upon the date 


In April the following telegram was received by Mr. Codd, Dom. 
Land Agent, Winnipeg: — 

Ottawa, April 9. 

" Withdraw immediately from sale, or from entry by military or 
" police bounty warrant, all Dom. Lands for 20 miles on each side 
M of Fourth Base Line, to include 24th range. 

" Lindsay Russell, 

" Surveyor General." 

At a meeting of City Council held April 8th, Aid. Ashdown 
moved, — in view of the change in the route of the C.P.R. — second- 
ed by Aid. Wright. 

" That whereas the council having been informed that the Dom. 
" Government intend to change the route of the Pacific Railway to 
" the south of Lake Manitoba, and whereas the people of Winnipeg 
" in mass meeting assembled, have pledged the city to a vote of 
" $300,000, if necessary, towards the construction of a bridge across 
" the Red River, and western railroad extension ; 

" Therefore be it resolved that the council pledge the city to 
" pay the cost of the construction of a railroad bridge across the 
" Red River, provided that the Dom. Government will construct 
" the Canadian Pacific Railway from Winnipeg westward." 

This resolution was unanimously carried, and the Mayor was 
instructed to telegraph the same to the Minister of Public Works, 



Winnipeg "Daily Times "—Patent Ixside: — Colin Steaxg— Lecture— 
Maxitobaphobia — Masonic Ball — St. George's Society — Ottawa 
Railway Delegation— City Council— City Assessment, 1879— Rail- 
way Strike— Soda Water— Sam West— Bridge — Pedestrianism— 
lord Elphixstoxe- Roast Beef— McDowell Troupe— Mr. J. C. Bkyd- 
(jks — Newspaper Men — Iowa Editors — Political Crisis — Royal Re- 
signs — Queen's Hotel— Andy McNab— W. II. Dishrowe— R. Keith- 
New Ministers— -Redistribution— H. M. S. " Pinafore "—Parliament 
Prorogues— City Council and South Western R. R.— Mr. Fletcher 
— Wishart Bros.— Rigney i. Carey— Manitoba First— Horoscope — 
Winnipeg Railway [nterests— A Distributing Centre— The Metro- 
polis ok the North- West— A Glorious Future— A Free Invitation 

On Saturday, 12th April, the Winnipeg Daily Times, the new 
conservative sheet, made its first appearance, and as so many of its 
predecessors, embarked in a similar cause, had only appeared for an 
instant, comet-like, to disappear precipitately, into the infinite, its 
advent was viewed, by a large number of our citizens with evident 
distrust. However, as extensive premises were leased on Main St., 
and as ear loads of material for the concern were constantly coming 
to hand, the most sceptical — not but that in some cases it went 
sorely against the grain — had at last to admit that its very material 
presence was by no means an illusion. It was an eight column, 
four page sheet, and in every respect a first-class paper. The tone 
of superiority, however, which it adopted and the somewhat aggres- 
sive nature of its editorials, at the outset awoke a spirit of com- 
bativeness, even among some of its sympathizers, and not until this 
peculiar spirit moderated, did it receive that support which it now 
enjoys. Mr. Charles R. Tuttle, lately of Ottawa, was its managing 

This new departure in the literary world had the effect of stimu- 
lating our other journals to greater efforts, for we now note the 
Free Press with a commendable spirit rushing to the front with its 
Saturday edition, increased to eight-pages, and garnished with a 
patent inside, and then — the cruel war commenced in earnest. On 


Easter Sunday the ice began running in the Assiniboine, and the 
femes prepared for the summer campaign. J. R. Brown and Colin 
F. Strang having dissolved partnership, the stationery business was 
continued by Mr. Colin F. Strang, in the old stand. 

Chief Justice Wood delivered a lecture before the Historical 
Society on the 10th of April, on the subject of " Cosmology and 

During all this'time, the crowd of humanity, suffering from what 
we will call Manitoba-phobia, still came pouring in, and indications 
were conclusive that the amount of land taken up in '79 would be 
greatly in excess of that located the previous year. In the ten 
months ending olst Oct., '78, 600,592 acres had been located in 
Manitoba ; and Winnipeg opened her capacious maw ready to ab- 
sorb, and assimilate all coiners. The annual vestry meeting of 
"Holy Trinity" was held on the loth April, ami two real harpers 
about the same time disturbed the ozone of our streets with music. 

Mr. Hector McLean of Ottawa, now came to reside in our midst, 
and engaged in the real estate and auctioneering business. Clark- 
son & Clements, tailors, about this time, sepa rated, and went on their 
respective ways rejoicing. On April 18th the Northern Light Lodge 
of the Masonic order gave a grand hall in the City Hall, which 
was in every particular a very brilliant affair. On the 20th, the 
first boats of the season, the Alpha and the Clieyenne, arrived in 
port. On the 23rd St. George's day, a few English residents met 
at the .Merchants Hotel, to discuss a roast of beef and a barrel of 
beer, provided for the occasion by host Morris, Mr. Furner occupied 
the chair, and Mr. Nursey the vice-chair. The following gen- 
tlemen were present: — Messrs. Radiger, Pearson, Disbrowe, Well- 
band, Cruttwell, Thomas, Rickards, Burnell, Vick, Crack, Mcl'hillips, 
and others. A pleasant evening was spent. The old St. George's 
Society having lapsed, an effort was made to organize a new one on 
a more substantial basis, and those present resolved themselves into a 
committee for that purpose. The same evening a special meeting 
of the City Council was held to discuss railway matters. A petition 
to the Minister of Public Works, Ottawa, setting forth the wishes 
of the city of Winnipeg in regard to her desire to have a branch of 
the C. P. R. tapping the main line some point west, and having its 


junction with the Pembina branch at St. Boniface, and the willing- 
ness of the city to contribute §300,000 towards the construction of 
the line, and the building of a railway bridge over Red River was 
submitted, and after some discussion adopted. The resolution 
introduced to send Mayor Logan and Mr. C. R. Tuttle, of the Times, 
to convey the petition, and represent our interests at Ottawa, met, 
as far as Mr. Tuttle was concerned, with some opposition, on the 
grounds that being a comparative stranger to Winnipeg, and without 
any great stake in the country, he would not be a representative 

This objection was oN'er-ruled and Messrs. Logan and Tuttle were 
appointed a deputation to proceed forthwith, and the sum of $500 
was voted for. expenses. ^ 

On the 25th April Mr. McArthur's new boat, the Marquette, 
arrived in Winnipeg. Her length was 130 feet, beam 28 feet, hold 
4<\ feet, draught 15 inches. She was destined for the Assiniboine 
and Red River traffic, and as a new enterprise, her owners deserved 
the thanks of the public. Mr. Yeomans, representing the Confedera- 
tion Life Assurance Company, arrived in town this month, and open- 
ed an office shortly after in Radiger & Bigg's block. The estimated 
expenditure of the city of Winnipeg for the year 1879 was §0:5,820. 
The estimated receipts (Market and Licenses) $13,960. A by-law 
to abolish the fish-market was now introduced. The expenditure 
account of Winnipeg Hospital for year ending April, '79, was $2,- 
832.85. His Honor, Governor Cauchon, having departed on a 
pleasure excursion, Chief Justice Wood was sworn in as adminis- 
trator, 2nd of May. 

Our City Fathers were now greatly exercised over the doings of 
the deputation at Ottawa, and special meetings were held every 
few evenings, to allow the superabundance of opinion an opportunity 
to unbosom itself. From documents before us, the result of the 
labors of Mr. J. W. Harris, we glean the following interesting in- 

1877 1878 1879 

Real Property $2,626,117 $2,664,730 $2,932,060 

Personal " ' 471,707 513,075 533,400 

$3,097,824 $3,177,805 $3,465,460 


shewing an increase in assessment of 1879'over the previous year 
of $257,655. Who now will doubt the stability, and extraordinary 
progressiveness of the city of Winnipeg. 

Information was now received in town of a strike of the " nav- 

ivies" on "Section 15," C. P. R., and considerable excitement pre- 
vailed, owing to the fact of the rising being reported to have-assumed 
a very serious character ; it was stated over 1,500 men had seized 
the rolling stock, and stores, and further trouble was apprehended. 
On the 8th, the military was called out, consisting of about 80 
men ; cavalry, infantry, and artillery, each supplying their quota, and 
under the command of Col. W. 0. Smith, proceeded by train to 
Cross Lake, the scene of the disorder. Owing to the firm attitude 
of the troops, no collision occurred ; the ring-leaders were arrested 
and the breach between Mr. Contractor Whitehead and his men 
was satisfactorily healed, and the troops returned homewards. 

In May F. W. Rimer, from Toronto, who was guilty of some 
rather extensive peccadilloes, visited Winnipeg ; he travelled incoy. 
under the name of the "Rev. Mr. Westman, of England." The 
disguise, however, appears to have been " too thin," as he was 
recognised here by Mr. Murdoch, a commercial man, who knew of 
his antecedents, and was eventually arrested and forwarded via the 
Dawson route to Toronto. At Shebandowan he escaped from the 
constable, but was subsequently re-arrested, and taken in safety to 
his destination. His exploits created no little excitement. 

The soda manufactory of Mr. Samuel West, on Bannatyne Street, 
was now in full blast, and as a developing enterprise deserves notice. 
Mr. West commenced business on a very small scale, but finding 
the demand for the manufacture increasing rapidly, imported new 
machinery and plant from Boston, and his equipment at present 
stands him about $3,000. He also erected large premises, and has 
now ample facilities for turning out lemon and plain soda, ginger 
ale, and spruce beer at the rate of about 125 dozen daily. West is 
largely patronized by the hotel fraternity, and is making money 
fast out of his new venture. Growing weary of a retail trade 
Mclntyre & McCulloch, having enlarged their store on Main Street, 
embarked in an exclusively wholesale business, and Fairfield, that 
prince of reMawateui's, having remained long enough in the two 


stands, the Terrapin and the St. Niclwlaa, successively, to establish 
their reputation, possessed with his chronic hunger for variety, cast 
about for another place, and was not satisfied until he had converted 
the old Chinese laundry on Portage Avenue into the " Golden 
Hotel," where to-day he caters for the most fastidious of our citizens, 
and offers a modern melange in the matter of mixed drinks, not to 
be beaten this side of Chicago. 

On a motion of Aid. Ashdown's before the City Council, 12th 
May, advocating an appropriation for preliminary expenses re Red 
River Bridge, the subject was ventilated in an earnest and warm 
manner, indeed it was now in order for our City Fathers on all 
occasions to display a vim and pointedness in the discussion of 
railway matters that was foreign to them on ordinary occasions. 
The first walking match that ever took place in "Winnipeg, came' off 
in May, '79, in the City Hall ; there were 9 starters, and the race 
a " forty-eight hours, go as you please" one ; .Tohn E. Wilson was 
the promoter; the first prize was won by a man named S pence, who 
covered 151 miles and. a bittock in the stipulated time. 

Lord Elphinstone paid Winnipeg a visit in May, for the purpose 
of making a personal examination of property he owned in various 
parts of the province. At a meeting of representatives of the vari- 
ous churches in the city, a Y. M. C. A. was organized, the following 
officers were elected : — Pres., J. A. M. Aikens ; V.-Pres., Robert 
Bourne and 1). U. Campbell; Recording secretary, R. I). Richard- 
son ; Corresponding secretary, Rev. A. T. Ferguson ; Treas., J. F. 
Mclntyre. The association started upon its road, under the best 
auspices. A gathering of Englishmen met at the Merchants Hotel, 
May 16, when a St. George's Society was formed, and officers elect- 
ed as under. Pres., A. F. Eden ; 1st V.-Pres., C. W. Radiger ; 2nd 
V.-Pres., A. Pearson ; Secretary, Walter R. Xursey ; Treas., W. H. 
Disbrowe ; Committee — J. H. Thomas, Wm. Wellband, Tlios. 
Hay, C. A. Burrows, H. Cruttwell : Stewards — S. L. Bedson, W. 
G. Gow, W. Golding, J. Morris, J. Hawkins, W. Cleverly. 

The Reno troupe about this time put in an appearance but were 
not successful, the McDowell company of Montreal arriving at the 
same time, and being presumably a Canadian troupe, and heralded 
with a flourish of trumpets — taking the wind out of their sails, to 


a material extent. The McDowells made a long stay in Winnipeg, 
and as clever exponents of the drama, left at their departure many 
warm friends behind them. Mr. C. J. Brydges, the successor of 
Mr. Donald A. Smith, as Land Commissioner to the Hudson Bay 
Co., also visited Winnipeg for the first time. May 19th, His Grace 
Archbishop Tache and the Rev. Father Lacombe left by train, en 
route for .France. We were now waylaid by legions of newspaper 
correspondents. Almost every live paper in Ontario and Quebec, 
sending a representative to interview us. We submitted to the in- 
fliction in a becoming spirit, extracting some consolation from the 
fact that free advertising was not calculated to extinguish us. The 
Winnipeg Fuel Co., a new speculation, now came to the front, and 
sported a steam cord-wood sawing machine, the first of its kind in- 
troduced into Manitoba. A meeting of members of th*> first expe- 
dition was held in May, and an association formed. The Board of 
Trade having discussed the advisability of the authorities to tax 
commercial travellers, some worthy representative bag-men, then 
sojourning in the city, rose in arms, and recorded a solemn protest.. 
On the 24th of May, the steamer Marquette arrived in port, having 
performed in safety the round trip — by the Assiniboine River — to 
Foil Ellice and return, about 1,000 miles, accomplishing the jour- 
ney in thirteen days. By this means a feasible steamboat route 
into the interior, by a hitherto untried way, had been discovered, 
and the proprietors of the Marquette deserved the gratitude of the 
people. The venture proved to be most remunerative. The Free 
Pi •&•<* and Timet* now indulged — to the intense delight of some of 
their respective supporters — in an interchange of questionable com- 
pliments. About this time Aid. McArthur was brought to task by 
some of his brother aldermen for writing letters to the papers, re- 
flecting upon the action of members of the city council, in regard 
to their connection with the proposed South- Western Colon- 
ization Railway. He survived the trouble. The Hudson's 
Bay Company, under the vigorous policy instituted by Mr. 
Brydges now placed a portion of their farming lands upon 
the market, and ottered inducements to purchasers upon such terms 
that could not fail to commend them by their liberality. The 
Manitoba Legislature re-assembled May 27th. On the 20th the 


Premier stated that the resignation of Hon. Mr. Royal, Minister of 
Public Works, had been placed in his hands and accepted. Explana- 
tions were deferred. The same day Mr. W. Murdoch, C. E., and 
party arrived in town. Mr. Murdoch was appointed by the 
Dominion Government to locate the C. P. R. line west of Selkirk. 
Quiz now went into insolvency. The causes which led to the Pro- 
vincial political crisis just developing were now made public. 
Documentary evidence laid before the house went to show that Mr. 
Royal on behalf of his French colleagues had taxed the Premier 
with the fact " that the Government as it was at present constituted, 
" did not command the support of a majority of the members repre- 
" senting English constituencies," ami insisted on a change being 
effected. To this Mr. Norquay responded by requesting Mr. Royal to 
place " the Department over which lie had control, intlufhandsofthe 
" Government, believing that the lack of support to the Government 
"from the English speaking side, was owing to the presence of him 
" (Mr. Royal) in the Cabinet." 

This at once led — Mr. Royal being the recognized leader of the 
French party — to a strictly national division of parties in the 
House, as the following vote (the first taken since the "crisis"), 
which was upon an amendment for a three months hoist to a 
Government Bill, will show : 

Yeas — Royal, La Riviere, Taillefer, Nolin, Goulet, Bourke — 6. 
Nays — Norquay, Walker, P>rown, Sutherland, Biggs, Gunn, Ross, 
Taylor, Cowan, McKenzie, Lusted, Scott and Drummond. — 13, 

Mr. Clarke, M.P.P. forSte. Anne, was unseated and disqualified, 
on the ground of personal bribery, by a court presided over by 
Judge Betournav. "Eli Perkins" struck Winnipeg about this time. 
The Hartford Insurance Company established an agency here, with 
Mr. G. F. Carruthers as their representative. The issue of Liquor 
Licenses for the city of Winnipeg, under the new regime, amounting 
to 24, were now issued by the Commissioners ; the number of 
applicants was legion. Another limb of the law, our respected 
friend Mr. Howell, applied in June for admission to the Manitoba 
bar, and was approved by the Benchers. 

Messrs. O'Connor & Brown, of London, Ont., having purchased 
the block of land on the corner of Portage Avenue and Notre Dame 


Street, commenced to build their new hotel, and which is yet 
in course of construction. The " Queen's" when finished will pro- 
bably be the finest hotel in Manitoba. It has a frontage of 180 
feet, built of white brick, three storeys high, with an iron roof, 50 
bed-rooms, three parlors, commodious offices, barber shop, bath- 
rooms, billiard-room, and entrance hall, with sample-rooms for 
commercial men and all modern appliances, and as the proprietors 
are old hotel men, there will be nothing wanting in its composition 
to make it a first-class house. The contractors for the construction 
of the " Queen's " are Messrs. Hugh Sutherland & Bros., and the 
hotel complete is estimated to cost £20,000. 

Mr. Andy McXab now moved into his new establishment on 
Main St., and opened out the finest horse-shueing establishment, 
and carriage works, in the Province. Andy McXab came to Mani- 
toba in 'To, and for some time was foreman horse-sfioer for Thos. 
Lusted. Being of an enterprising disposition, he soon made head- 
way, and stands to-day, an example of what industry and Nor'- 
West opportunities properly applied, can lead to. McXab employs 
8 to 10 hands, and is second to none in his own line of business. 
We note these examples of progress with unqualified pleasure, and 
with an object ; for our aim is to establish by practical demonstra- 
tion the fact, that Winnipeg presents opportunities, unequalled, if 
properly embraced. 

W. H. Disbrowe also found his business developing rapidly, and 
for the second time had to seek more commodious premises. With 
the influx of so many of the agricultural class, seeds soon were 
quoted at a premium, and it was as much as Disbrowe and Keith, 
with united effort could do, to supply the demand. Disbrowe 
moved further north, and what with seeds and implements together, 
his large warehouse presents to-day, an appearance that will repay 
an inspection. If. Keith, having wheeled his old store out into the 
suburbs, and moved Ashdown's old tin shop into the vacant posi- 
tion, soon stocked his store with an excellent assortment, and con- 
tinues to divide the trade. 

The vacancies in the cabinet caused by the retirement of Messrs. 
Royal and Delorme, were now filled by Messrs. Biggs and Taylor 
the former taking the port-folio of Public Works, the latter, that of 


Agriculture. The reconstructed Government, it will be thus seen, 
was composed altogether of English speaking members. On the 
4th of June, Mr. Royal at some length, reviewed in an eloquent 
speech, the policy of the administration, condemning in no measured 
terms, the expulsion of the French-Canadians, and solemnly pro- 
testing against the new departure. In these matters onr desire is 
to deal simply with facts, leaving all " conclusions" to the peculiar 
fancy of the reader. 

The Metis now celebrated its ninth anniversary. 
The University of Manitoba held its first Convocation on June 
5th, the Hon. Mr. Royal, Vice-Chancellor, presiding, when sixteen 
students presented themselves for the University examinations. 

The Redistribution Bill laid before the House provided for 
24 electoral divisions. Without going into details as to the extent 
or boundaries of these constituencies, it might be of interest here to 
note their order and names. 

1, Gladstone; 2, Westboume; 3, Mountain; 4, Bumside ; 5, 
Portage; 6, High Bluff and Poplar Point; 7, Dunerin X.; S, 
Dufferin S. ; 9, Morris W. ; 10, Emerson; 11, St. Agathe ; 12, 
Provencher E.; 13, Provencher W.; 14, St. Francois Xavier; 1"», P.aie 
St. Paul ; 16, Headingly ; 17, Kildonanand St. Paul ; 18, Winnipeg; 
19, St. Boniface; 20, Springfield ; 21, St. Andrew's W. ; 2.°., Rock- 
wood ; 24, Woodlands. 

This Bill was passed upon the following vote : 
Yeas — Norquay, Walker, Brown, Biggs, Sutherland, Gunn, 
Ross, Lusted, Drummond, McKenzie, Cowan — 11. 

Kays — Bourke, Goulet, Schmidt, Taillefer, Delorme, La Riviere, 
Scott, Murray, Royal — 9. 

Eight French members and one English Speaking member (Scott) 
voting against it. The opposition to the measure by the French 
members was obvious, redistribution would have the effect of 
reducing their representation in the Legislature of the Province. 
The opposition of Capt. Scott was based upon the ground that the 
Bill made no provision as to what time the Legislation aimed at 
should take effect. 

An Act to amend the Act Incorporating the City of Winnipeg 
having passed its third reading the Lieut.-Governor came down to 


the House on the 10th June and gave his assent thereto. The city- 
by-law providing for the raising of $200,000 for the construction of 
a bridge over Red River now passed its first reading, and was 
advertised in the city papers for the purpose of familiarizing the 
citizens with its provisions. Subsequently the by-law was dis- 
covered to have been illegally framed, it was withdrawn after much 
discussion, another one drafted and presented to the people in its 
place. H. M. S. Pinafore was introduced in June to Winnipeg, 
and at once commanded the rapt and wild delight of our extraor- 
dinarily aesthetic citizens. Mr, Gordon Brown, of the Toronto 
Globe now paid us a visit, and the members of the Press Association 
of Iowa ami a party of ladies, numbering in all about ninety, 
attracted by the stories perpetrated by Manitoban Munchausens, 
extended their wanderings to Winnipeg in order to enable them 
hereafter to die happy. The Bishop of liuj^n's Land returned in 
June, having succeeded whilst on his trip to the old country, in 
raising the sum of £4,000 as a contribution to the funds of St. 
John's College, and was presented himself on his arrival here with 
a testimonial consisting of $800, as a slight token of the esteem in 
which he was held, and in recognition of hi- -self-denying efforts in 
promoting the welfare of his diocese. 

On the 25th June His Honor Lieut-Governor Cauchon pro- 
rogued Parliament, and assented to all ti. - bills passed by the 
House, with one exception, viz., that regarding the change of the 
French Printing. 

The bridge question was now an all absorbing topic, and half 
the citizens of Winnipeg rushed into pen an i ink with the object 
of airing their particular views, whilst the City Council and the 
directors of the South- Western Railway, . nesponded away in 
fruitless endeavours to arrive at some m ~. xa\ understanding in 
regard to the handling of the 3200,000 and :he division of respon- 
sibility as to the bridge itself. From a bystanders view of the 
situation, it seemed very much as if those members of the Council 
who were not directly interested in the coJ ..ization railway, were 
determined to believe that the directors of *,..-. .South* Western A'ere 
attempting to hatch an awful plot, in the accomplishment of which, 
the safety o the city of Winnipeg was terr. ..v jeopardized, blindly 


overlooking the fact that the promoters of this very undertaking 
were as vitally interested in the prosperity of the town as they 

In July Mr. W. E. Fletcher removed his grocery establishment 
from Main Street south to A. McNee's new store north of the City 
Hall, and embarked in a more extended and profitable business than 
formerly, and large additions to old premises, and numerous build- 
ings of every design were springing up in the suburbs of the town 
like mushrooms. Messrs. Wishart & Bros., of the celebrated "China- 
man" stand, now contemplated moving the tobacconists department 
of their large business, and confining their attention in the present 
store to the grocery trade exclusively. Messrs. Rigney & Carey 
opened out the only Italian warehouse in the city in Eadiger & Bigg's 
block. Mr. Geo. Fulthorpe made his debut in trade next door to 
Fletcher's, and numerous representatives of all branches of industry 
located in our midst, attracted by the increasing popularity of the 
city, its field fur honest speculation, and driven, perhaps, by the 
hardness of the times, and the depression that was fastening with 
such grim pertinacity, upon the older and wealthier centres of com- 
merce in the eastern provinces ; indeed, it seemed in order, and by 
no means an insane conclusion, to accept Winnipeg and Manitoba 
as the salvation of the perplexed man ; no matter how harrassed, 
how distressed, our city presented a panacea for every evil, and to 
judge by the spilit of thrift, and the manifest evidences of pros- 
perity that to-day characterize its free and independent citizens, 
the " happy thought" that suggested Manitoba to them, as the only 
thoroughfare to " resumption," should be warmly cherished. . 

Before closing these very raw annals, it was our intention to 
dilate upon a variety of men and matters that the scant limits of 
this book peremptorily forbids ; in fact, the necessity of being stingily 
terse has been one of the greatest difficulties that ha^had to be met, 
and at the last moment we realize how completely incomplete must 
the history of any place appear to the individual, whose particular 
individuality, in the hurry of a rapid review, has escaped prominent 
notice; the excuse rests in the assertion that the object has been to 
treat as far as possible ot facts, not of 'persons. The knowledge that 
much has been left unsaid, that might, with credit to the city and 


her citizens have been chronicled, by no means reassures us, and is 
only mitigated by the fact that nothing has been made matter of 
history that the most sensitive of our burghers might carp it. Not 
that concealment has been necessary — our records are stainless. As 
has been stated, many events have been omitted that we have 
burned to introduce ; the St. George's Society pic-nic, for example ; 
the opening of Knox Church ; the vote on the $200,000 By-law, 
with the biography of the gentleman who voted " i\V</ ;" the 
celebrated races of the Winnipeg Turf Club, and the departure of Mr, 
Loucks ! These, however, and a hundred other kindred notable 
events must remain unnoticed. 

A decade has all but elapsed — on paper-— since this history of 
Winnipeg was commenced. It has been endeavoured to show the 
various phases of existence through which she has passed from that 
early date up to the present time. We have followed her develop- 
ment from her village epoch, with 100 settlers, through numerous 
metamorphoses, up to the date of her blossoming into a city with 
10,000 souls. To-day she boasts of a street extension of 83 miles. 
To-day nearly 1,000 dwelling houses stud the plain, where ten 
years since they could be counted upon the fingers of two hands. 
To-day the total value of her property is assessed at $3,415,065, 
and taxes $50,875. 70 ; in 1869 the same was represented by as 
many hundreds. 

As we write, the bridge over the Red River, that will give us 
unbroken railway connection with all parts of the great American 
continent, only awaits the mutual decision of our City Council and 
the Government engineers as to its location, for its immediate con- 
struction to be proceeded with ; already has 100 miles of the western 
branch of the Canada Pacific road been surveyed westward from 
Winnipeg as far as the provincial boundary, and its tender for 
construction awarded, and awaits but the arrival of the contractor 
for earnest work to be prosecuted. Already has a charter been 
secured for the Manitoba and South- Western Railway ; already 
have its shareholders come to the front, and as we go to press, the 
necessary percentage on its capital stock has been paid up, its per- 
manent Board of Directors elected, and a reliable assurance been 


given that ere the next six weeks are over, active operations for its 
location will be proceeded with.. 

That Winnipeg is destined to be the great distributing and railway- 
centre of the vast North-West is now no empty figure of speech, 
for it admits of no denial, it being all but an accomplished fact. If 
we have been prosperous in the past, no great amount of prophecy- 
is required to predict the era of multiplied prosperity that awaits 
us in the immediate future. Winnipeg must advance. Importance 
is thrust upon her by the accident of her geographical position. 
Ten years from now she will be ten times the size she is to-day. 
Her levees will be lined with steamboats; her river, banks with 
elevators ; industries and manufactures will spring up in her midst, 
and the shrill whistle of the locomotive, piloting the rich burden of 
-cereal products from the supporting west, will ring in the dawn of 
the creation of a wealthy and populous city, that the boldest 
enthusiasts until now have hardly had the audacity to contemplate. 

Can any one with this array of facts before them doubt the 
redundant prosperity that now appears mapped out for the future 
history of Winnipeg, or wonder why it is that her citizens wear that 
confident manner so typical of western enterprise ? Surely not. 
Should there be, however, any individual sceptical enough to doubt 
the bonajiJes of these unvarnished statements, let him come west, 
and experience for himself the still greater advantages to be derived, 
from the next " ten years sojourn in Winnipeg." 

(the end.) 



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